ENTO 2010 WEEK 3 NOTES
ENTO 2010 WEEK 3 NOTES ENTO 2010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Ento 2010 Week 3 Notes January 25, 2016 o DDT Very cheap and very stable Interferes with nervous system Fat-soluble Causes reduced calcium in bird eggs Was banned in U.S. in 1972 Production in U.S. continued for many years Is still used in many parts of the world o DDT Biomagnification DDT is trapped in animal fat As DDT travels up the Food Chain, the concentration increases o Pesticides in U.S. Farmers use 75% Government and industry use 10% Homeowners use 10% Forestry uses 1% o Pesticides: Contaminate groundwater Persist in deep soil because low oxygen and few bacteria Most pesticides are untested for cancer Cancer tests are for one pesticide, but most crops get several pesticides o Pesticides and cancer Farmers are at higher risk-especially migrant workers Does long-term exposure cause cancer? Most pesticides have not been tested for cancer Synergistic (2 or more pesticides may act together to be worse than one pesticide) o David Pimentel, Department of Entomology, Cornell University How much does it cost to apply pesticides? Each year $4 billion is spent in U.S. to apply pesticides Increased yield from this expense= $16 billion o Pimentel Less than 0.1% of pesticides applied to crops reach target pest o 1994: UGA student suffers from pesticide spraying in her dorm o 1996: She works in Georgia legislature, and this leads to new state law: “state buildings must post notice when pesticides are sprayed” January 27, 2016 o EPA & Pesticides We must “trust” the Pesticide Industry “Old chemicals” protected Many old pesticides may cause cancer o Migrant workers are often exposed to very high levels of pesticides o Pesticide Treadmill Insect becomes resistant to pesticide Must apply greater amount of chemicals to kill pest insects Then, apply more toxic pesticides o Pesticides and Children Pesticide levels are 5X too high Developing bodies are more susceptible Residue levels calculated for adults Balance health vs. profit o Income spent on food: U.S spends less o Victor Yannacone: “1 part per million is significant” o Human sex hormones & pesticides “Every man in this room is half the man his grandfather was” sperm count o Some pesticides mimic human sex hormones! o Human sex hormones and pesticides 2010 Sperm count ½ 1950 exposure to DDT in girls causes 5 fold increase in breast cancer o Our Stolen Future Theo Colborn 1996 Danger of environmental estrogens Man-made chemicals (including pesticides) in the environment mimic estrogen hormones In the body, estrogen hormones interact with a receptor in a lock and key fashion Man-made chemicals fit into receptor site and act like estrogen hormones Block estrogen hormone action and affect metabolism o Florida: Lake Apopka Major DDT spill in 1980 Decline in number of alligators 75% alligator eggs are dead 25% of male alligators have small penises many male turtles are “intersex” o Estrogens are added to shampoo and skin creams Girls around the world are reaching puberty at an earlier age Is there a correlation? o Breasts A Natural-and-Unnatural History Florence Williams 2012 o DES=a synthetic estrogen From 1940-1970, DES was given to 5 million pregnant women to reduce miscarriages DES was given to girls who were “too tall”, had acne, and to stop flow of mother’s breast milk DES given to chickens and cows to promote growth 1971-women whose mother’s took DES are much more likely to develop vaginal cancer DES effect takes place 20 years later! January 29, 2016 o Thalidomide was given to pregnant women to combat morning sickness In 1962, Thalidomide was shown to cause birth defects Placenta does not protect fetus from chemicals Thalidomide is now used to treat leprosy o Captan is probably carcinogenic Applied to Florida strawberries Canada has set lower tolerance levels Are U.S. tolerance levels safe? Captan still provides economic benefits to growers o Silent Spring Chapter 17: The Other Road (Robert Frost) “road less traveled by”=use biological control, instead of chemical pesticides o IPM=Integrated Pest Management Know the pest Judicious use of pesticides Host plant resistance Biological control o Know the Pest Life cycle of insect How does the pest reproduce? When is the pest a problem? Which stage of the insect is the most susceptible? Attack the pest when it is most vulnerable! o Judicious use of pesticides Apply pesticides when pest is present and vulnerable Use of “scouts” or pheromone traps to monitor pest Monitor environmental conditions Use of Ultra Low Volume Sprayers o Host plant resistance Breeding programs Introduction of resistance by crossing with “new” varieties Chemical Physical Introduction of resistance by recombinant DNA technology “Designer genes” o ex. Monsanto: B.t. Cotton Will resistance be a problem? o Leaves of “Wild” Insect-Resistant Potato Plants from South America have 2 kinds of hairs Sticky hairs trap aphids Hairs make “alarm pheromone” that deters aphids Goal: breed these traits into domestic potato plants o Split-screen video B.t. gene was put into soybean The caterpillar on the leaf with B.t. keeps moving and does not feed o For the last 50 years, seed companies did not bother to have insect resistance in their crop varieties Because they would recommend a chemical pesticide Now they want Host Plant Resistance o Most of our crop plants are not native to U.S. Search for resistance in native country Breed resistance traits into high-yield varieties o Ethical issue: Seed companies take genes from plants in third world countries Produce insect-resistant plants Should company share profits? o Biological control Sterilization Beneficial insects Bacteria that attacks insects Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t. ) Viruses that attack insects o Sterilization Pest insects: Rear in lab Sterilize Release Insects mate in field No progeny Problem: Most insects are hard to rear in the lab
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