New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Caitlin Conner


Marketplace > University of Georgia > Entomology > ENTO 2010 > ENTO 2010 WEEK 3 NOTES
Caitlin Conner
GPA 3.8

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Lecture notes from January 25, 2016- January 29, 2016
Insects & the Environment
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Insects & the Environment

Popular in Entomology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.


Reviews for ENTO 2010 WEEK 3 NOTES


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/23/16
 Ento 2010 Week 3 Notes  January 25, 2016 o DDT  Very cheap and very stable  Interferes with nervous system  Fat-soluble  Causes reduced calcium in bird eggs  Was banned in U.S. in 1972  Production in U.S. continued for many years  Is still used in many parts of the world o DDT Biomagnification  DDT is trapped in animal fat  As DDT travels up the Food Chain, the concentration increases o Pesticides in U.S.  Farmers use 75%  Government and industry use 10%  Homeowners use 10%  Forestry uses 1% o Pesticides:  Contaminate groundwater  Persist in deep soil because low oxygen and few bacteria  Most pesticides are untested for cancer  Cancer tests are for one pesticide, but most crops get several pesticides o Pesticides and cancer  Farmers are at higher risk-especially migrant workers  Does long-term exposure cause cancer?  Most pesticides have not been tested for cancer  Synergistic (2 or more pesticides may act together to be worse than one pesticide) o David Pimentel, Department of Entomology, Cornell University  How much does it cost to apply pesticides?  Each year $4 billion is spent in U.S. to apply pesticides  Increased yield from this expense= $16 billion o Pimentel  Less than 0.1% of pesticides applied to crops reach target pest o 1994: UGA student suffers from pesticide spraying in her dorm o 1996: She works in Georgia legislature, and this leads to new state law: “state buildings must post notice when pesticides are sprayed”  January 27, 2016 o EPA & Pesticides  We must “trust” the Pesticide Industry  “Old chemicals” protected  Many old pesticides may cause cancer o Migrant workers are often exposed to very high levels of pesticides o Pesticide Treadmill  Insect becomes resistant to pesticide  Must apply greater amount of chemicals to kill pest insects  Then, apply more toxic pesticides o Pesticides and Children  Pesticide levels are 5X too high  Developing bodies are more susceptible  Residue levels calculated for adults  Balance health vs. profit o Income spent on food:  U.S spends less o Victor Yannacone: “1 part per million is significant” o Human sex hormones & pesticides  “Every man in this room is half the man his grandfather was”  sperm count o Some pesticides mimic human sex hormones! o Human sex hormones and pesticides  2010 Sperm count ½ 1950  exposure to DDT in girls causes 5 fold increase in breast cancer o Our Stolen Future  Theo Colborn 1996  Danger of environmental estrogens  Man-made chemicals (including pesticides) in the environment mimic estrogen hormones  In the body, estrogen hormones interact with a receptor in a lock and key fashion  Man-made chemicals fit into receptor site and act like estrogen hormones  Block estrogen hormone action and affect metabolism o Florida: Lake Apopka  Major DDT spill in 1980  Decline in number of alligators  75% alligator eggs are dead  25% of male alligators have small penises  many male turtles are “intersex” o Estrogens are added to shampoo and skin creams  Girls around the world are reaching puberty at an earlier age  Is there a correlation? o Breasts  A Natural-and-Unnatural History  Florence Williams 2012 o DES=a synthetic estrogen  From 1940-1970, DES was given to 5 million pregnant women to reduce miscarriages  DES was given to girls who were “too tall”, had acne, and to stop flow of mother’s breast milk  DES given to chickens and cows to promote growth  1971-women whose mother’s took DES are much more likely to develop vaginal cancer  DES effect takes place 20 years later!  January 29, 2016 o Thalidomide was given to pregnant women to combat morning sickness  In 1962, Thalidomide was shown to cause birth defects  Placenta does not protect fetus from chemicals  Thalidomide is now used to treat leprosy o Captan is probably carcinogenic  Applied to Florida strawberries  Canada has set lower tolerance levels  Are U.S. tolerance levels safe?  Captan still provides economic benefits to growers o Silent Spring  Chapter 17: The Other Road (Robert Frost)  “road less traveled by”=use biological control, instead of chemical pesticides o IPM=Integrated Pest Management  Know the pest  Judicious use of pesticides  Host plant resistance  Biological control o Know the Pest  Life cycle of insect  How does the pest reproduce?  When is the pest a problem?  Which stage of the insect is the most susceptible?  Attack the pest when it is most vulnerable! o Judicious use of pesticides  Apply pesticides when pest is present and vulnerable  Use of “scouts” or pheromone traps to monitor pest  Monitor environmental conditions  Use of Ultra Low Volume Sprayers o Host plant resistance  Breeding programs  Introduction of resistance by crossing with “new” varieties  Chemical  Physical  Introduction of resistance by recombinant DNA technology  “Designer genes” o ex. Monsanto: B.t. Cotton  Will resistance be a problem? o Leaves of “Wild” Insect-Resistant Potato Plants from South America have 2 kinds of hairs  Sticky hairs trap aphids  Hairs make “alarm pheromone” that deters aphids  Goal: breed these traits into domestic potato plants o Split-screen video  B.t. gene was put into soybean  The caterpillar on the leaf with B.t. keeps moving and does not feed o For the last 50 years, seed companies did not bother to have insect resistance in their crop varieties  Because they would recommend a chemical pesticide  Now they want Host Plant Resistance o Most of our crop plants are not native to U.S.  Search for resistance in native country  Breed resistance traits into high-yield varieties o Ethical issue:  Seed companies take genes from plants in third world countries  Produce insect-resistant plants  Should company share profits? o Biological control  Sterilization  Beneficial insects  Bacteria that attacks insects  Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t. )  Viruses that attack insects o Sterilization  Pest insects:  Rear in lab  Sterilize  Release  Insects mate in field  No progeny  Problem: Most insects are hard to rear in the lab


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.