New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Notes week of 1/12 and 1/14

by: Kennedy Connolly

Notes week of 1/12 and 1/14 CHM 111

Marketplace > Oakland University > Chemistry > CHM 111 > Notes week of 1 12 and 1 14
Kennedy Connolly
Oakland University
GPA 3.98

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

All in class notes for the week!
General Chemistry 1
Greg Felton
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in General Chemistry 1

Popular in Chemistry

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Connolly on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 111 at Oakland University taught by Greg Felton in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Oakland University.

Similar to CHM 111 at Oakland University


Reviews for Notes week of 1/12 and 1/14


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/23/16
Tuesday 1/12 Lecture Chapter 2 - Atoms compose all matter. An atom is the smallest identifiable unit of an element. Laws: 1. Law of Conservation of Mass: - “In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed” 2. Law of Definite Proportions - “All samples of a given compound have the same proportions of their constituent elements regardless of source” 3. Law of Multiple Proportions - “An atom of A combines with one, two, three or more atoms of B” - (e.g.) Amt. of C in grams Amt. of O in grams Carbon dioxide CO^2 1 g 2.67 g Carbon monoxide CO 1 g 1.33 g Atomic Theory: 1. Each element is composed of atoms 2. All atoms of an element have the same mass and properties 3. Atoms combine in whole number ratios to form compounds 4. Atoms of an element cannot change into atoms of another element Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment: - Fired alpha particles at a piece of gold foil - Predicted result was the “Plum Pudding” model - Actual result was Nuclear model with a nucleus in the center Subatomic Particles: Particle Mass (kg) Charge proton 1.67 x 10^-27 positive (+) neutron 1.67 x 10^-27 neutral (0) electron 0.00091 x 10^-27 negative (-) Elements: - Identity of an atom is defined by the number of protons in the nucleus - # of protons = Atomic Number (symbol “Z”) - Each element has a unique chemical symbol - Isotopes: Atoms with the same number of protons but a unique number of neutrons Mass # 
 A Mass Number = protons + neutrons Z X Atomic # -lectrons: -hIons: When an atom gains or loses an electronual to the number of protons in the atom - Positive ion (loses an electron) = cation - (e.g.) Na^+ - Negative ion (gained an electron) = anion - (e.g.) Cl^— The Periodic Table: - Elements are classified into 3 groups - Metals: - Location: Lower left/middle - Good conductors - Malleable/Ductile - Often shiny - Tend to lose electrons in chemical changes - Nonmetals - Location: Upper right - Poor conductors - Not malleable/ductile - Tend to gain electrons in chemical changes - Metalloids - Location: Along staircase - Mixed properties - Semi - conductors Main Group Elements: - Properties are predictable based on location on the periodic table - Group 1: Alkali Metals - 1st column - Reactive metals - +1 ions - Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals - 2nd column - Somewhat reactive - +2 ions - Group 16: Oxygen Group - 16th column - -2 ions - Group 17: Halogen Group - 17th column - Very reactive nonmetals - -1 ions - Group 18: Noble Gases - 18th column - Mostly not reactive - No ions Transition Elements/Metals: - Columns in middle of the table - Properties difficult to predict based on location on the periodic table Atomic Mass: - The average mass of the isotopes that comprise an element (e.g.) —> Isotope Mass Percent Chlorine - 35 34.97 75.77% Chlorine - 37 36.97% 24.23% Avogadro’s Number: - 1 mole of anything is 6.02 x 10^23 units of that thing - (e.g.) - Convert 2.45 moles of Cu —> Number of Cu atoms - 2.45 moles Cu x 6.02 x 10^23 Cu atoms = 1.48 x 10^24 Cu atoms 1 mole Cu Thursday 1/14 Lecture Finish Chapter 2 and Begin 3 Converting Between Mass and Moles: - To count the atoms by weighing them, we need to know the mass of 1 mole of atoms - Molar Mass: - 1 mole of atoms of an element - Mass on the periodic table - Obtained through mass spectrometry - (e.g.) - Aluminum (Al) - Molar Mass = 26.98 g - 26.98 g Al = 1 mole Al = 6.022 x 10^23 Al atoms - (e.g.) - 0.0265 g of Carbon —> Number of moles of Carbon - Molar Mass = 12.01 g - .0265 g C x 1 mole C = 2.21 x 10^-3 moles C 12.01g C Chapter 3: Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations - Elements combine with each other to form compounds - A new compound is an entirely new substance with entirely different properties Compounds: - Composed of atoms held together by chemical bonds - Chemical Bonds: Due to the attraction of charged particles (electrons/protons of atoms). - 2 Types of Chemical Bonds: - Ionic Bonds: - Transfer of electrons - Occur between metals and nonmetals - Metals become cations - Nonmetals become anions - Opposite charges attract to give and Ionic bond - (e.g.) - Na+ + Cl- = NaCl (sodium chloride) - Formula Unit - Most basic unit of an ionic compound - Simplest ratio - Covalent Bonds: - Sharing of electrons - Occurs between 2 or more nonmetals - Molecule: - Compound made up of atoms covalently bound together - Chemical Formula: - Indicates the elements present in the compound and the relative number of atoms/ions. - (e.g.) - H2O, CO 2 - Empirical Formula: - Relative number of atoms of each element (simplified) - Molecular Formula: - Actual number of atoms of each element - (e.g.) - C 4 8(molecular—> CH 2(empirical) - Structural Formula - Lines to represent which atoms are bonded together (e.g.) Hydrogen H O2 2 HO Peroxide compound molecular formula empirical formula structural formula Bringing it all together…… Pure Substance Element Compound Atomic Molecular Molecular Ionic - Exist in nature Exist in Covalent Bonds Cations with single nature as between 2 (metals) atoms as their two or more nonmetals - Anions basic units atoms of the (nonmetals) element - Basic unit is bonded formula unit together 7 Diatomic’s: - H 2 N 2 O 2 F2, C2 , B2 ,2I Polyatomic's - P 4 S 8 Polyatomic Ions: - Contain ionic and covalent bonds - (e.g) + - - NaNO —>3Na NO 3 - CaCo —3 Ca Co 2+ 3 2- Ionic Compounds: - Always contain positive and negative ions - Assign charge to the ions based on their location on the periodic table - 2 Types of ionic Compounds: - Type 1 - Metal has invariant charge - CaCo —3 Ca Co 2+ 3 2- - Type 2 - Metal has different charge in different compounds 2- 2+ - FeSO —>4SO 4 (always has -2 charge) therefore Fe has a charge of +2 (Fe ) Naming: Examples- 2+ - Fe = Iron (II) - Fe = Iron (III) - “ide” ending means something is an anion - Cl = Chlorine anion = Chloride 2- - O = Oxygen anion = Oxide - Fe 2++ Cl —> FeCl = Ir2n (II) Chloride Polyatomic Examples: - Most polyatomic anions are oxyanions - Oxyanions - polyatomic ions that contain oxygen - (e.g.) - NO =3nitrate - NO =2nitrite **Need to know polyatomic examples in table 3.5** Hydrates: - Ionic compounds containing a specific number of water molecules - (e.g.) - MgSO x 4 H O —>2Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.