BIOL 100 Unit 2 Notes
BIOL 100 Unit 2 Notes BIOL 100 7012 01
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BIOL 100 7012 01
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by kgrunwaldt on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 100 7012 01 at Truman State University taught by B Moore in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Biology with Lab in Biology at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
1. Subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, electrons 2. Matter: anything that occupies space and has mass 3. Elements: cannot be broken down into any simpler substance during an ordinary chemical reaction a. CHNOPS: most abundant elements in living organisms i. Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur b. Anything after Uranium (92) is manmade 4. Nucleus: center of an atom composed of protons (positively charged) and neutrons (neutral) a. Electrons: negatively charged particles orbiting an atom’s nucleushas negligible mass but occupies most of the space of an atom 5. Atomic number: equal to the number of protons (in a neutral atom, is also equal to the number of electrons) 6. Mass number: number of protons+number of neutrons 7. Isotopes: atoms of the same element but that differ ONLY in the number of neutrons a. This changes the mass number but NOT the atomic number i. hydrogen1 (protium) 1p, 1, 0n ii. hydrogen2 (deuterium) 1p, 1e, 1n iii. hydrogen3 (tritium) 1p, 1e, 2n 8. Electrons are responsible for bonds between atoms a. First electron shell can hold 2 electrons b. Outermost electron shell can hold 8 electrons 9. Ionic bonds: transfer of electrons a. Relatively strong i. Example: NaCl (sodium chloride) ii. Na=11 Cl=17 iii. Outer shell of Na has 1 electron, outer shell of Cl has 7 electrons iv. When ionically bonded, electron from Na jumps to Cl and both have full outer rings v. Na is now an ion because it has a positive charge (11 protons, 10 electrons) vi. Cl is negative because it has 17 protons and 18 electrons 1. Opposites attract 10.Covalent bonds: sharing of electrons a. Strongest bonds b. Known as molecules i. Example: H2 1. Hydrogen has one electron, so two elements of hydrogen share the two electrons and form a single bond ii. Example: O2 1. Shares two pairs of electrons, forming a double bond iii. Example: CH4 1. Carbon: 6 2. Hydrogen: 1 a. Hydrogen x4=4 3. Four pairs of shared electrons, forming four single bonds iv. Example: H2O 1. Two pairs of shared electrons, forming two single bonds 2. Bent molecule 11.Electronegativity: tendency of an atom to pull electrons toward itself a. Oxygen: 3.5 b. Nitrogen: 3.0 c. Carbon: 2.5 d. Hydrogen: 2.1 i. The higher the number, the greater the attraction 12.Polar covalent bond: not sharing electrons equally 13.Nonpolar covalent bond: sharing electrons equally 14.Hydrogen bond: weak, electrostatic contractions that hold water molecules together a. Must have polarity b. Must involve hydrogen
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