BIOL 100 Unit 3 Notes
BIOL 100 Unit 3 Notes BIOL 100 7012 01
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BIOL 100 7012 01
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by kgrunwaldt on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 100 7012 01 at Truman State University taught by B Moore in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Biology with Lab in Biology at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
1. Galileo: first scientist to record observations seen through a microscope in the early 1600s 2. Robert Hooke: looked at thin slices of cork under a microscope and called them “cellulae” in 1655 3. Leeuwenhoek: further improved lenses; looked at teeth scrapings and sperm in 1668 4. Schleiden & Schwann: looked at plant and animal tissues in 1838 a. Contributed to the first two premises of the cell theory 5. Cell Theory a. All organisms consist of one or more cells b. The cell is the basic living unit of living organisms 6. Rudolph Virchow: said all cells come from preexisting cells 7. All cells have three things in common: a. All have plasma (or cell) membrane b. All have cytoplasm with ribosomes c. All have DNA 8. Prokaryotic Cells a. Means “before nucleus” b. 2 Domains: Archaea and Bacteria c. Characteristics: i. No nucleus ii. DNA is “circular” iii. DNA in irregularly shaped areanucleoid iv. Simplest of all cells v. Have semirigid cell wall (amino acids and sugars) vi. No membranebound organelles 9. Eukaryotic Cells a. Means “true nucleus” b. Has a distinct nucleus c. Has many membranebound organelles which separate the chemical activities of the cell d. Comprises all organisms in Domain Eukarya e. Characteristics: i. Nucleus: the control center ii. Nuclear envelope (membrane): two lipid bilayers with pores iii. Nucleolus: dense cluster of RNA iv. Nucleoplasm: fluid portion inside nucleus v. Chromosomes or chromosomal material (chromatin) 10. Function of the Nucleus a. Has hereditary instructions (DNA) b. Controls synthesis of organic molecules c. Governs growth and division 11. Cytoplasm: fluid portion within cell membrane 12. Ribosomes: necessary component of all cellssites of initial protein synthesis 13. Endoplasmic reticulum: sometimes continuous with nuclear membrane a. Function: continuation of protein synthesis (rough ER) or lipid synthesis (smooth ER) 14. Golgi Bodies/Complex: “packaging and distribution” center a. Function: final processing of lipids and proteins 15. Lysosomes: a. Membranetype sacs (vesicles) b. Contain hydrolytic enzymes i. Function: digestion and disposal 16. Peroxisomes: a. Vesicles containing enzymes that use oxygen to break down fatty acids and amino acids b. In the liver, they detoxify harmful compounds 17. Mitochondria: “powerhouse” of the cell a. Function: where cellular respiration takes place (formation of ATP) b. Have their own RNA (mtRNA) and own DNA (mtDNA) and make own proteinsand can reproduce 18. Plastids: found only in photosynthetic eukaryotes a. Also have their own DNA and RNA 19. Chloroplasts: green plastids; contain green pigment; chlorophyll a. Function: to carry out photosynthesis or participate in photosynthesis 20. Chromoplasts a. Function: synthesis and storage of yellow and orange pigments 21. Amyloplasts (starch grains) a. Function: storage of starch for plants 22. Vacuoles: sacs of fluid a. Central vacuole: only in plants b. Function: storage of water, amino acids, sugars, ions 23. Cell wall: lies outside the cell membrane in plants (made of cellulose) a. Function: gives plants structure and support b. Cell wall of protists and fungi differ in composition 24. Cytoskeleton: network of proteins in the form of filaments a. Function: maintains shape of the cell; helps it move and helps with movement within the cell; anchors organelles b. Three basic components: i. Microtubules (thickest): made of tubulin ii. Intermediate fibers: made of keratin iii. Microfilaments: made of actin 25. Cilia and flagella a. In eukaryotes, all make of microtubules in a 92 arrangement 26. Centrioles: only in animal cells a. Occur in pairs (called a centrosome) b. Composed of microtubules (90 pattern) c. Play a role in cell division 27. Cell Membranes a. Characteristics: i. Composed mostly of lipids and proteins ii. Lipid molecules have hydrophilic heads (positioned toward inside and outside of cell) and 2 hydrophobic tails sandwiched betweencreates a phospholipid bilayer iii. Separates fluids inside cell from fluids outside and regulates what gets in and what gets out 1. Semipermeable or selectively permeable 2. Helps maintain homeostasis at a cellular level iv. Proteins carry out many of membrane functions v. Currently accepted model is called the Fluid Mosaic Model vi. How and whether substances get through depends on: 1. Size of molecule 2. Polarity (solubility in lipids) 3. Electrical charge b. Passive Transport i. Requires no energymoves down a concentration gradient 1. Simple Diffusion a. Moves across a phospholipid bilayerdown a concentration gradient i. Examp le: dissolved gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen) ii. Lipid soluble molecules (ether, alcohol) iii. Someti mes waterbut very slowly b. Movement of molecules from area of higher concentration to lower until “dynamic” equilibrium is reached 2. Facilitated Diffusion a. Uses the channel or carrier proteins still goes down a concentration gradient i. Examp le: ions (uses protein channels) ii. Glucos e (uses protein carriers) iii. Rapid diffusion of water (through channels called aquaporins) b. Special case of diffusion: i. Osmos is: the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane in response to a solute concentration ii. Tonicit y: comparison of solute concentration c. Area of higher solute concentration: hypertonic d. Area of lower solute concentration: hypotonic i. Water will always move from hypotonic to hypertonic e. Area of equal solute concentration: isotonic f. When animal cells are placed in distilled water, the cells lyse g. When animal cells are placed in a concentrated salt solution, they crenate h. When plant cells are placed in distilled water, there is an increase in turgor pressure (turgid) i. When plant cells are placed in a concentrated salt solution, there is a decrease in turgor pressure (plasmolysis) j. Water potential (Ψ) = pressure potential (Ψp) + solute potential (Ψs) k. Pressure potential (Ψp): In a plant cell, pressure exerted by the rigid cell wall that limits further water uptake l. Solute potential (Ψs): The effect of solute concentration. Pure water at atmospheric pressure has a solute potential of zero. As solute is added, the value for solute potential becomes more negative. This causes water potential to decrease also c. Active Transport: requires energy (ATP) and uses proteins; goes against the concentration gradient i. Examples: 1. Calcium pump 2. Sodium/potassium pump 3. Sometimes glucose d. Bulk Transport: using vesicles i. Endocytosis: taking in substances 1. Cell membrane engulfs and pinches off a “sac” or vesicle within the cell ii. Phagocytosis: “cell eating” phagocytes iii. Pinocytosis: “cell drinking” iv. Receptormediated: molecule specific e. Carbon dioxide: diffusion f. Oxygen: diffusion g. Calcium pump: active transport h. Glucose: facilitated diffusion i. Water: osmosis j. Sodiumpotassium pump: active transport k. Bacteria: bulk transport l. Alcohol: simple diffusion 1. Chromosomes: composed of DNA and associated proteins 2. Genes: discrete units of inheritance; segments of DNA a. Code for proteins 3. GeneDNAChromosome 4. DNA Structure and Replication a. Made up of nucleotides i. Phosphate, 5carbon sugar (deoxyribose), and a nitrogen base b. 4 different possible nitrogen bases i. Doubleringed purines 1. Adenine and Guanine ii. Singleringed pyrimidines 1. Thymine and Cytosine c. Phosphatesugar complexes are covalently bonded to another phosphatesugar complex d. Nitrogen bases covalently bonded to sugars e. DNA is doublestranded joined by hydrogen bonds between bases f. Base pair bonding: i. A goes with T ii. C goes with G iii. Set of three successive bases on DNA is a triplet iv. Forms a double helix g. WatsonCrick Model discovered double helix of DNA in 1953 h. DNA replication takes place in the nucleus and occurs to make new cells i. Replication: i. DNA unwinds ii. 2 strands separate (enzymeDNA nuclease/helicase) 1. Hydrogen bonds broken between the bases 2. Nitrogen bases are “exposed” beginning at the origin of replication 3. New nucleotides are joined to the exposed “template” strand 4. Enzyme: DNA polymerase to form the “complementary” strand 5. RNA: ribonucleic acid a. Single strand of nucleotides covalently bonded together b. 5carbon sugar (ribose) c. 4 possible bases in RNA i. Adenine and Guanine ii. Cytosine and Uracil 6. Protein Synthesis a. Taking information from DNA, transcribing it into RNA, and creating a protein b. Transcription: DNA to RNA c. Translation: RNA to protein 7. 3 Types of RNA involved in protein synthesis a. Messenger RNA (mRNA) i. Carries code from DNA to ribosome ii. Set of 3 successive bases on mRNA is called a CODON b. Transfer RNA (tRNA) i. Carries amino acids to mRNA at ribosomes ii. Set of 3 successive bases on tRNA is called an ANTICODON c. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) i. rRNA, along with proteins, makes up ribosomes and is responsible for peptide bonds 8. Transcription a. RNA is transcribed from DNA i. DNA unwinds ii. Portion of DNA separates (enzyme: nuclease) iii. Free nucleotides join to one side of exposed DNA; DNA serves as a template (enzyme: RNA polymerase) iv. The newly formed strand of RNA separates from the DNA and moves out into the cytoplasm; DNA rewinds 9. Translation a. Initiation: mRNA attaches to a small ribosomal subunit i. tRNA (with an anticodon on one side and an amino acid on the other) attaches to codon on mRNA (Remember: A pairs with U and C pairs with G); large ribosomal subunit attaches b. Elongation (polypeptide formation) i. A second tRNA attaches to mRNA ii. Peptide bond forms between first two amino acids iii. tRNA moves down the lineassembly of amino acids iv. “Empty” tRNA leaves ribosome c. Termination i. Process continues until STOP codon is reached, and then polypeptide is ended and released 10. DNA Triplets mRNA Codo tRNA Cod Amino Acid 11. TAC AUG UAC START 12. AAG UUC AAG Phenylalanine 13. TCG AGC UCG Serine 14. ATG UAC AUG Tyrosine 15. ATA UAU AUA Tyrosine 16. ACT UGA ACU STOP 17. Mutation: a heritable change in the DNA a. Heritable: going from one line of cells to the next line of cells b. Causes: i. Radiation ii. Chemicals iii. Tobacco iv. Heredity c. Two major types of mutations: i. Point Mutation: a substitution of one or more bases in the DNA molecule ii. Frameshift Mutation: an addition (insertion) or deletion of a base in the DNA molecule 18. Protein Synthesis: a. 19.
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