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BIOL 100 Unit 3 Notes

by: kgrunwaldt

BIOL 100 Unit 3 Notes BIOL 100 7012 01

Truman State
GPA 3.92

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About this Document

These notes cover Unit 3.
Biology with Lab
B Moore
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by kgrunwaldt on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 100 7012 01 at Truman State University taught by B Moore in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Biology with Lab in Biology at Truman State University.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
1. Galileo: first scientist to record observations seen through a microscope in the  early 1600s 2. Robert Hooke: looked at thin slices of cork under a microscope and called them  “cellulae” in 1655 3. Leeuwenhoek: further improved lenses; looked at teeth scrapings and sperm in  1668 4. Schleiden & Schwann: looked at plant and animal tissues in 1838 a. Contributed to the first two premises of the cell theory 5. Cell Theory a. All organisms consist of one or more cells b. The cell is the basic living unit of living organisms 6. Rudolph Virchow: said all cells come from preexisting cells 7. All cells have three things in common: a. All have plasma (or cell) membrane b. All have cytoplasm with ribosomes c. All have DNA 8. Prokaryotic Cells a. Means “before nucleus” b. 2 Domains: Archaea and Bacteria c. Characteristics: i. No nucleus ii. DNA is “circular” iii. DNA in irregularly shaped area­­nucleoid iv. Simplest of all cells v. Have semi­rigid cell wall (amino acids and sugars) vi. No membrane­bound organelles 9. Eukaryotic Cells a. Means “true nucleus” b. Has a distinct nucleus c. Has many membrane­bound organelles which separate the  chemical activities of the cell d. Comprises all organisms in Domain Eukarya e. Characteristics: i. Nucleus: the control center ii. Nuclear envelope (membrane): two lipid bilayers  with pores iii. Nucleolus: dense cluster of RNA iv. Nucleoplasm: fluid portion inside nucleus v. Chromosomes or chromosomal material  (chromatin) 10. Function of the Nucleus a. Has hereditary instructions (DNA) b. Controls synthesis of organic molecules c. Governs growth and division 11. Cytoplasm: fluid portion within cell membrane 12. Ribosomes: necessary component of all cells­­sites of initial protein synthesis 13. Endoplasmic reticulum: sometimes continuous with nuclear membrane a. Function: continuation of protein synthesis (rough ER) or lipid  synthesis (smooth ER) 14. Golgi Bodies/Complex: “packaging and distribution” center a. Function: final processing of lipids and proteins 15. Lysosomes:  a. Membrane­type sacs (vesicles) b. Contain hydrolytic enzymes i. Function: digestion and disposal 16. Peroxisomes: a. Vesicles containing enzymes that use oxygen to break down fatty  acids and amino acids b. In the liver, they detoxify harmful compounds 17. Mitochondria: “powerhouse” of the cell a. Function: where cellular respiration takes place (formation of ATP) b. Have their own RNA (mtRNA) and own DNA (mtDNA) and make  own proteins­­and can reproduce 18. Plastids: found only in photosynthetic eukaryotes a. Also have their own DNA and RNA 19. Chloroplasts: green plastids; contain green pigment; chlorophyll a. Function: to carry out photosynthesis or participate in  photosynthesis 20. Chromoplasts a. Function: synthesis and storage of yellow and orange pigments 21. Amyloplasts (starch grains) a. Function: storage of starch for plants 22. Vacuoles: sacs of fluid a. Central vacuole: only in plants b. Function: storage of water, amino acids, sugars, ions 23. Cell wall: lies outside the cell membrane in plants (made of cellulose) a. Function: gives plants structure and support b. Cell wall of protists and fungi differ in composition 24. Cytoskeleton: network of proteins in the form of filaments a. Function: maintains shape of the cell; helps it move and helps with movement within the cell; anchors organelles b. Three basic components: i. Microtubules (thickest): made of tubulin ii. Intermediate fibers: made of keratin iii. Microfilaments: made of actin 25. Cilia and flagella a. In eukaryotes, all make of microtubules in a 9­2 arrangement 26. Centrioles: only in animal cells a. Occur in pairs (called a centrosome) b. Composed of microtubules (9­0 pattern) c. Play a role in cell division 27. Cell Membranes a. Characteristics: i. Composed mostly of lipids and proteins ii. Lipid molecules have hydrophilic heads (positioned  toward inside and outside of cell) and 2 hydrophobic tails sandwiched  between­­creates a phospholipid bilayer iii. Separates fluids inside cell from fluids outside and  regulates what gets in and what gets out 1. Semi­permeable or selectively  permeable 2. Helps maintain homeostasis at a  cellular level iv. Proteins carry out many of membrane functions v. Currently accepted model is called the Fluid Mosaic Model vi. How and whether substances get through depends  on: 1. Size of molecule 2. Polarity (solubility in lipids) 3. Electrical charge b. Passive Transport i. Requires no energy­­moves down a concentration  gradient 1. Simple Diffusion a. Moves across a  phospholipid bilayer­­down a concentration gradient i. Examp le: dissolved gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide,  nitrogen) ii. Lipid  soluble molecules (ether, alcohol) iii. Someti mes water­­but very slowly b. Movement of  molecules from area of higher concentration to lower until  “dynamic” equilibrium is reached 2. Facilitated Diffusion a. Uses the channel or  carrier proteins still goes down a concentration gradient i. Examp le: ions (uses protein channels) ii. Glucos e (uses protein carriers) iii. Rapid  diffusion of water (through channels called  aquaporins) b. Special case of  diffusion: i. Osmos is: the movement of water across a semipermeable  membrane in response to a solute concentration ii. Tonicit y: comparison of solute concentration c. Area of higher solute  concentration: hypertonic d. Area of lower solute  concentration: hypotonic i. Water  will always move from hypotonic to hypertonic e. Area of equal solute  concentration: isotonic f. When animal cells  are placed in distilled water, the cells lyse g. When animal cells  are placed in a concentrated salt solution, they crenate h. When plant cells are  placed in distilled water, there is an increase in turgor  pressure (turgid) i. When plant cells are  placed in a concentrated salt solution, there is a decrease  in turgor pressure (plasmolysis) j. Water potential (Ψ) =  pressure potential (Ψp) + solute potential (Ψs) k. Pressure potential  (Ψp): In a plant cell, pressure exerted by the rigid cell wall  that limits further water uptake l. Solute potential (Ψs):  The effect of solute concentration. Pure water at  atmospheric pressure has a solute potential of zero. As  solute is added, the value for solute potential becomes  more negative. This causes water potential to decrease  also c. Active Transport: requires energy (ATP) and uses proteins; goes  against the concentration gradient i. Examples:  1. Calcium pump 2. Sodium/potassium pump 3. Sometimes glucose d. Bulk Transport: using vesicles i. Endocytosis: taking in substances 1. Cell membrane engulfs and pinches  off a “sac” or vesicle within the cell ii. Phagocytosis: “cell eating” phagocytes iii. Pinocytosis: “cell drinking” iv. Receptor­mediated: molecule specific e. Carbon dioxide: diffusion f. Oxygen: diffusion g. Calcium pump: active transport h. Glucose: facilitated diffusion i. Water: osmosis j. Sodium­potassium pump: active transport k. Bacteria: bulk transport l. Alcohol: simple diffusion 1. Chromosomes: composed of DNA and associated proteins 2. Genes: discrete units of inheritance; segments of DNA a. Code for proteins 3. Gene­­DNA­­Chromosome 4. DNA Structure and Replication a. Made up of nucleotides i. Phosphate, 5­carbon sugar (deoxyribose), and a  nitrogen base b. 4 different possible nitrogen bases i. Double­ringed purines 1. Adenine and Guanine ii. Single­ringed pyrimidines 1. Thymine and Cytosine c. Phosphate­sugar complexes are covalently bonded to another  phosphate­sugar complex d. Nitrogen bases covalently bonded to sugars e. DNA is double­stranded joined by hydrogen bonds between  bases f. Base pair bonding: i. A goes with T ii. C goes with G iii. Set of three successive bases on DNA is a triplet iv. Forms a double helix g. Watson­Crick Model discovered double helix of DNA in 1953 h. DNA replication takes place in the nucleus and occurs to make  new cells i. Replication: i. DNA unwinds ii. 2 strands separate (enzyme­DNA  nuclease/helicase) 1. Hydrogen bonds broken between  the bases 2. Nitrogen bases are “exposed”  beginning at the origin of replication 3. New nucleotides are joined to the  exposed “template” strand 4. Enzyme: DNA polymerase to form  the “complementary” strand 5. RNA: ribonucleic acid a. Single strand of nucleotides covalently bonded together b. 5­carbon sugar (ribose) c. 4 possible bases in RNA i. Adenine and Guanine ii. Cytosine and Uracil 6. Protein Synthesis a. Taking information from DNA, transcribing it into RNA, and  creating a protein b. Transcription: DNA to RNA c. Translation: RNA to protein 7. 3 Types of RNA involved in protein synthesis a. Messenger RNA (mRNA) i. Carries code from DNA to ribosome ii. Set of 3 successive bases on mRNA is called a  CODON b. Transfer RNA (tRNA) i. Carries amino acids to mRNA at ribosomes ii. Set of 3 successive bases on tRNA is called an  ANTICODON c. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) i. rRNA, along with proteins, makes up ribosomes  and is responsible for peptide bonds 8. Transcription a. RNA is transcribed from DNA i. DNA unwinds ii. Portion of DNA separates (enzyme: nuclease) iii. Free nucleotides join to one side of exposed DNA;  DNA serves as a template (enzyme: RNA polymerase) iv. The newly formed strand of RNA separates from  the DNA and moves out into the cytoplasm; DNA rewinds 9. Translation a. Initiation: mRNA attaches to a small ribosomal subunit i. tRNA (with an anticodon on one side and an amino  acid on the other) attaches to codon on mRNA (Remember: A pairs with  U and C pairs with G); large ribosomal subunit attaches b. Elongation (polypeptide formation) i. A second tRNA attaches to mRNA ii. Peptide bond forms between first two amino acids iii. tRNA moves down the line­­assembly of amino  acids iv. “Empty” tRNA leaves ribosome c. Termination i. Process continues until STOP codon is reached,  and then polypeptide is ended and released 10.  DNA Triplets                mRNA Codo                      tRNA Cod               Amino  Acid 11. TAC AUG UAC START 12. AAG UUC AAG Phenylalanine 13. TCG AGC UCG Serine 14. ATG UAC AUG Tyrosine 15. ATA UAU AUA Tyrosine 16. ACT UGA ACU STOP 17. Mutation: a heritable change in the DNA a. Heritable: going from one line of cells to the next line of cells b. Causes: i. Radiation ii. Chemicals iii. Tobacco iv. Heredity c. Two major types of mutations: i. Point Mutation: a substitution of one or more bases  in the DNA molecule ii. Frameshift Mutation: an addition (insertion) or  deletion of a base in the DNA molecule 18. Protein Synthesis: a. 19.


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