BIOL 100 Evolution and Ecology Unit Notes
BIOL 100 Evolution and Ecology Unit Notes BIOL 100 7012 01
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BIOL 100 7012 01
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by kgrunwaldt on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 100 7012 01 at Truman State University taught by B Moore in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Biology with Lab in Biology at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
1. Ecology: study of interactions between living organisms and their environment 2. Population ecology: study of how and why populations change 3. Community ecology: population of all species occupying a habitat 4. Characteristics of Populations: a. Size: number of individuals b. Density: group of individuals occupying a given area at a given time c. Dispersion: how populations are spread i. Clumped: due to patchy resources ii. Uniform: due to competition of resources iii. Random: conditions and resources fairly uniform d. Age Structure: i. Prereproductive ii. Reproductive iii. Postreproductive 5. Numerical size of population depends on: a. How many individuals enter (by birth or immigration) b. How many leave (by death or emigration) 6. Biotic Potential: the maximum rate of increase per individual under ideal conditions 7. Survivorship Curves a. Type I: Large mammals b. Type II: Small mammals, birds c. Type III: Fish, insects, amphibians, reptiles 8. Why haven’t humans reached carrying capacity? a. Expanded to new habitats and climates b. Have increased the carrying capacity through agriculture and technology c. Removal of some limiting factors i. Sewage disposal, nutrition, disease control 9. Ecological niche: the role of a particular species within an ecosystem, including all aspects of its interaction with the living and nonliving environments a. Encompasses all aspects of its way of life, including its physical home or habitat 10. Habitat: type of place where an organism normally lives 11. Characteristics of a Community: a. Diversity (number of different species) i. Climate ii. Resources iii. Adaptive traits of species iv. Interactions b. Number of species that occupy different trophic levels (feeding levels) c. Relative abundances: number of individuals of each kind of organism 12. Interactions a. Neutral b. Competitive i. Intraspecific Competition: competition among individuals of the same species (more intense) ii. Interspecific Competition: competition between individuals of different species 1. Exploitation competition a. All have equal access to resource, but they differ in how fast or how efficiently they use it 2. Interference competition a. Certain individuals limit or prevent others from using the resource (they control access to it) iii. Competitive Exclusion c. Symbiotic: a close interaction between organisms of different species over an extended period of time) i. Commensalism: one species benefits, the other does not benefit nor is harmed ii. Mutualism: both species benefit 1. Obligate mutualism: both species are dependent upon each other for survival iii. Parasitism: one species benefits and the other is harmed 1. Ectoparasites: live on an organism 2. Endoparasites: live in another organism d. Predatory: one organism consumes another i. May lead to stable coexistence (keeps either from overshooting carrying capacity) ii. Can eliminate those in poor condition iii. Can lead to coevolution iv. Can change age structure of prey population v. Can affect species diversity 13. 1. Evolution: genetic changes that occur in a population with the passage of time, resulting in adaptation of organism to the environment a. Premises behind the evolution: i. Occurs within a population ii. Variation exists within the population iii. Occurs over a long period of time 2. Population: all individuals of the same species in a particular area 3. Species: individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing offspring capable of reproducing 4. Microevolution: small changes in populations 5. Macroevolution: changes sufficient to produce new species 6. Homologous structures: structures that have different functions but developed from the same type of embryonic tissue 7. Vestigial structures: structures that seem to have no purpose or function 8. Comparative embryology: organisms that have a common lineage 9. Biogeography: distributions of living organisms (or fossils of) throughout the world a. Findings: i. Many species unique to isolated region ii. Similar species found in different regions 10. Comparative Biochemistry: similarity of DNA and proteinsmore similar species (within the same family) share more a. Chimpanzees and humans have 99% same proteins 11. Jean Baptiste Lamarck: inheritance of acquired characteristics a. Said bodies of organisms are modified through the use or disuse of different parts 12. Darwin proposed the theory of Natural Selection (process of descent with modification) a. Proposed the theory after receiving a paper from Alfred Wallace stating the mechanism 13. 5 Broad Categories of Variations in Populations a. Gene mutations b. Abnormal changes in chromosome structure or number c. Crossing over and genetic recombination during meiosis d. Segregation and independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis e. Fertilization between genetically different parents 14. 5 Major Evolutionary Processes a. Mutations b. Mating preferences (sexual selection) c. Genetic drift (unpredictable changes in allele frequency due to a chance event) i. Population bottleneck ii. Founder effect d. Gene flow (change in allele frequency as individuals leave or enter a population) e. Natural selection (difference in survival and reproduction among individuals of a population that differ in the details of their heritable traits) i. Directional selectionone extreme is favored ii. Disruptive selectionboth extremes are favored 15. Patterns of Evolutionary Change a. Divergent evolution: when one species “evolves” from another (macroevolution) i. Example: polar bears evolved from brown bears b. Adaptive radiation: several species may have evolved from one common ancestor i. Allopatric speciation (geographic isolation) ii. Sympatric speciation (reproductive isolation) c. Convergent Evolution: the independent evolution of similar structures among unlike species d. Coevolution: the evolution of adaptations in two species due to their extensive interactions with one another i. Examples: predator/prey interactions; plants and their pollinators
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