Class Note for MIC 205A at UA
Popular in Course
Popular in Department
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
Reviews for Class Note for MIC 205A at UA
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 02/06/15
Infectious Diseases of the Digestive System GI Tract GI Tract Defenses Oral cavity Iysozyme saliva tonsils and adenoids slgA Stomach low pH mucus Intestines bile MALT normal flora peristalsis Previous Microbes of the Day That Infect the Gastrointestinal System Microbial Growth Escherichia coli 0157 Listeria monocytogenes Epidemiology Vibrio cholerae US FoodborneDisease Outbreaks FIGURE 6 Number of reported Ioodbornedisease outbreaks by state United States 2002 205 IL 7777 7 37 go a J 1 i f S quot 12 F 13 1 EVAN 9 Mulnsratg outtwak 7 Includes Guam Puerlo Rico and the US Virgln Islands CDC Data 19982002 Total outbreaks 6647 3072 had contributing factor contamination proliferation sunival 4480 had unknown etiology 1184 were bacterial 585 Salmonella 709 viral 657 Norovirus 23 parasitic 221 chemical Typhoid Mary W Human carrier and reservoir of Typhoid Fever and Salmonellosis A 1985 epidemic due to contaminated milk infected 14000 people in the Midwest I Cases of typhoid fever I Cases of other salmonelloses Cases per 100000 1940194519501955196019651970197519801985199019951999 Year Salmonella enterica serovars Infect domestic animals Eggs and contaminated meat One of the most prevalent causes of food borne illnesses Transmission dose as few as 10 organisms Attachment is key virulence factor Salmonella enterica serovars Gram negative bacillus Classification based on serology and phage susceptibility assays Salmonellosis 40000 cases annually in US Invades intestinal epithelial cells motility LPS fimbriae Nausea cramps diarrhea Recovery in a few days but may shed organism for 6 months FIGURE 1 Platequot of reptileassociated Salmonella serotypes isolated from humans United States 1963 1998 25 R ate Per 10000000 population 39Reptileassociated serotypes are isolates from nonhumans reported to CDC and the US Department of Agriculture that are isolated from reptiles 250 of the time Camp ylobacter jejuni Small curved Gram negative rod Lives in large intestine of birds and mammals Fecal contamination of water and foods Campylobacteriosis Leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the world 24 million US casesyear Undercooked poultry shellfish unpasteurized dairy products contaminated water Watery bloody diarrhea Campylobacteriosis Adhesion Invasion Catalase for mq survival Rotavirus dsRNA virus Primary cause of diarrhea morbidity and mortality 1 million cases per year 70000 hospitalizations Fecaloral transmission fomites Most serious in infants 624 months Fir7 I Treated with r Aquot antibiotics I 39h a l Hepatitis Inflammation 39Wewnmimg 4168thme of the liver mammam Multiple WWW 39 panhd191merrgt Viruses mam nimaaadvcmiting bofmpeme 39jaur dice dengue omjfrg Hepatitis A Virus Infectious hepa s Hepatitis A Virus Y a 391 lquot v quot 7 y39 1 v Small RNA virus Agfilik 1 iv 2 ileum A x w Transmitted b 1Ike t AI VAy g39rt l Tiltgfir gxu fecaloral route thl 39v r f rquot1x 39 r3 y39quoti imam Formerly prevented 1395 Vl xp Iquot f I I g1g f r f With gamma Wquot 39 globulin New effective vaccine Hepatitis A in US Hepatitis A Worldwide HEPmrISA mpmadomw ODODDP puhtioIl Urihistaksu dialilalias1397 Hepa s A virus Infec39ion 52gt g d AntiquotAV Prwulonco I Hi In 9 Inhunodime low ll6n Elms llmss m Wm murmer mum lhwninlmithqmc demmh rmrmmma n uranium Mair mum M5mrmmmf39zsumt l pmw Mamet quot quot V P Hepatitis A Antibodies Hepatitis B Virus Cllnlcel Illness Serum hepatitis in CllOn I 39l gG f i A Envelo ed DNA a v r 39 19M virus Can result in i I I t chronic infection r and liver cancer i gtJ sty EB Recombinant I H a quots siii sA ei vaccrne 0 1 2 3 4 3 6 39l 8 9 10 ll 12 H Week rogression to Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infectio Typical Serologic Course Acute Chronic 6 months Years HBeAg antlHBe Job exposure to blood a 5 El HBsAg 0 How hapatltls Is spreadv TRANSMISSION PROBABILITIES V r L a BvirusGCvir l Definitely Rarely quot 39 Between lamin members B r G Needlestick iniuries B 9 IV drug use shared needles 3 G Total antiHBc Transfusions n 9 Hemudialvsis B G Orally a 0 sexually a G Analoral sex a G lgM antiHBc Mother to child at birth B 0 Body piercing B e quotv Acupuncturetattooing B 0 i I Recreational cocaine 3 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 35 eeks after Exposure i quot l 39 1 pg l I I w r 7 I 3 P Hepatitis C Virus Serum hepatitis More likely than HBV to become chronic t x j zquot n u r 39 2 Also causes liver 39 cancer 11 i 1 n I I v tu No vaccnne Hepatitis C Treated with Interferon alpha and ribavirin No cure but slows liver damage Giardiasis Shed by wild animals into water supply as well as by infected humans G Iamblia attaches to human intestinal wall Diarrhea lasting for weeks Treated with antiparasitic drugs Prevalence of HCV Infection Among Blood D0nors 11 5 Intermediate I 024 36 Low I 501 Very Low I Unknown AntiHCV prevalence by EIA I or EIAZ with supplemental tesling based on data available in January 1995 Giardia Iamblia Protozoan Cysts survive in environment lnsensitive to Nuclei Contaminated water source of infection Helminth Transmission Coming iii Thu McGa39alw Hill Comp Cycle A Intestine gt environment gt A Larva hatches enters tissue 39 ingested ygegu39e Examples WhipWO rm is V 39 39 f3 3 I Embryonic 999 In cycle A the worm daveloos In ntestzne egg Is released with feces nto environment eggs are Ingested by new host and hatch in intestine examplasz Ascen s Tn churisi Helminth Transmission mum to mammal o mum Cycle 3 Intestine gt llssues mlglales environment gt skin penetration V 1 Example 39 39 hookworms quot J Emillarva L 1 Egg lnlecnve Ialva f In cycle a me wolm malures n mleslme eggs ave released with laces larvae hatch and UEVEIDD In environment lnlecllol39l occuls through sxln pcneuallon by larvae chample mammals Helminth Transmission Cowllgmlb Hm Nlqulv lllllLompalllo Cycle 0 Intestine gt L x environment gt food animal 4 muscle gt 7 7 a M in ested Ellllimnlua39 I g 9a 39 Example tapeworm ll cycle C me adull mailings In human Inlesllne eggs ale teleased lmo envllonwlenl eggs ale eaten by gun a39llmztls larval Inlms encysl m ussue humans eamg anlmal Ilesh ale mleczeu lexample raenlal Maal Encvslmenl In muscle Helminth Transmission Various organs gt environment gt ingestion or penetration lgln laiiev Example flukes 59535 uml we Environment I lnlermedli WWE Flmlml 39 slag ln Cycle n 2995 are release llom human humans ave mama lmwgn mgesllnn nrdllecl penblmllon ny larval phase examplas Oplsmolvhlsand Schlslosamal Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Worms Pig whipworm causes transient non invasive noninfective human disease Improved IBD symptoms