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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Desjardins on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 3666 at Florida State University taught by Dr. William Doerner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Victimology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Chapter 1 Study Notes To what does the term mala in se refer? It refers to the way society recognizes murder and other serious affronts as totally unacceptable behavior. What is the difference between retribution and restitution? Retribution is when the offender would suffer in proportion to the degree of harm caused by his/her actions. Restitution is when the offender would make payments in an amount sufficient to render the victim whole again. What does the term lex talionis mean? It translates as eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth. This means punishment is equal to the harm inflicted on the victim. Define deterrence. The major goal of deterrence is to prevent future transgressions. The thinking is that the lack of any enrichment or gain from criminal activity would make transgressive acts unattractive. Compare and contrast the victim’s justice system with the criminal’s justice system. The criminal's justice system used to be the side that was 'innocent until proven guilty'; the criminals were always assumed innocent. The victims justice system was the one fighting to prove guiltiness. How did the victim’s justice system turn into the criminal’s justice system? In the justice system today, it is all about finding sufficient evidence to ensure the criminal is guilty. What is the relevance of the terms Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft for victim treatment? When talking about societies and how people live, an "organic society" refers to Gemeinschaft, and a mechanic society refers to Gesellschaft. Crimes committed in a Gemeinschaft type society hurt not just one individual (the victim), but hurts the entire society since everyone in the community has a duty and a place. What is a typology and why did the early victimologists concentrate on creating typologies? A typology is an effort to categorize observations into logical groupings to reach a better understanding of our social world. The early victimologists concentrated on creating typologies to better see if the victim of the crime was actually contributing to its own victimization. What is the importance of the criminal-victim dyad to people like Hans von Hentig? -the importance of the dyad is that it focuses on the dynamics (what transpires between the two parties) rather than the outcome. What is the significance behind the book titles The Criminal and His Victim and The Victim and His Criminal? 'The Criminal and His Victim was written by Hans von Hentig, and 'The Victim and His Criminal' was written by Stephen Schafer. Hans von Hentig uses the term 'victim participation' whereas Schafer uses the term 'functional responsibility' in place. What does the term agent provocateur imply? A person who induces others to break the law so that they can be convicted. Explain von Hentig’s victim typology that appears in Table 1–1 of the textbook. This table explains that a victims characteristics may contribute to the victimization episode. For example, very young people, females, and elderly persons are more likely to lack the physical power to resist offenders-giving them a greater risk of being victimized. What does the phrase “blaming the victim” mean? The blamer's way of coping with a bad situation as a listener or rationalizing one's failure to intervene as a participant in the crime. What categories does Mendelsohn introduce in his victim typology? 1. Criminal 2. Self (Suicide) 3. Social Environment 4. Technology 5. Natural Environment Explore the typology, presented in Table 1–3 of the textbook, which Schafer developed. Schafer's typology builds upon victim responsibility for the crime. Very similar to the groupings of von Hentig's, however Schafer explicitly sets forth the responsibility of different victims while von Hentig just identifies the varying risk factors. What does “victim precipitation” mean? Victim Precipitation is the degree to which the victim is responsible for his or her victimization. What was the importance of Wolfgang’s homicide study? Wolfgang's homicide study revealed that 26% of the homicides occurring between 1948 and 1952 resulted from victim precipitation. How did Wolfgang define victim precipitation? Wolfgang's definition of victim precipitation was "the first in the homicide drama to use physical force directed against his subsequent slayer. The victim-precipitated cases are those in which the victim was the first to show and use a deadly weapon, to strike a blow in an altercation-in short, the first to commence the interplay of resort to physical violence." What three findings or empirical regularities emerged from Wolfgang’s homicide study? 1. The victim and offender knew each other 2. Violence escalated 3. Alcohol/drug consumption by either or both parties Discuss Amir’s research. Amir was a student of Marvin Wolfgang. He wrote Patterns of Forcible Rape, replicating Wolfgang's methodology. His findings concluded that of forcible rape in Philadelphia from 1958-1960, 19% of cases deemed victim-precipitated Did Wolfgang’s study and Amir’s research support or refute the concept of victim precipitation? Wolfgang and Amir's studies supported the concept of victim precipitation. Why did some people object to Amir’s conclusions? Some (most) people objected Amir's conclusion of 'some victims had an unconscious desire to be forcibly raped', because the people against the study argued Amir's conclusions to faults implicit in relying upon police accounts, to a bunch of procedural errors, and it was an ill-conceived theoretical notion. Explain the four assumptions behind the victim precipitation argument. The behavior of the victim can explain the criminal act The offender becomes activated only when a victim emits certain signals A victims behavior is necessary and sufficient to cause a criminal act The intent of the victim can be gauged by the victimization incident What does Curtis gain by merging victim precipitation with offender responsibility in Table 1–5 of the textbook? Curtis gains the separation of 'victimology' and 'criminology', creating the term and study of general victimology. What is “general victimology” and how does it represent a new approach? Created by Mendelsohn, the aim of general victiology was to "investigate the causes of victimization in search of effective remedies". Mendelsohn contented that a focus on just criminal victimization was too narrow Using Figure 1–1 of the textbook, what four broad questions does general victimology raise? Study of the definitions of victims Study of the application of these definitions Study of the victims reaction Study of the societal response How does “critical victimology” represent a different approach? Critical victimology is "an attempt to examine the wider social context in which some versions of victimology have become more dominant than others and also to understand how those versions of victimology are interwoven with questions of policy response and serve delivery to crime victims." Some things this asks is how/why/what/who defines certain situations as criminal. What was the importance of the victim movement to academic victimology? Started legal reforms, created more academic journals, started the National Organization for Victim Assistance, started the World Society of Victimology, started the American Society of Victimology, and changed college courses in the criminology/criminal justice fields. What movements led to the rise of concern over victim rights? The Women's Movement, Children's Rights, the growing crime problem, and Victim Compensation movement Who was Hans von Hentig? Hentig wrote "The Criminal and His Victim". This book introduced the 'criminal- victim dyad'. Whats the 'criminal-victim dyad'? Focuses on the dynamics (what transpires between the two parties) rather than the outcome Who was Beniamin Mendelsohn? He was named the 'Father of Victimology' and coined the term victimology. Who was Stephen Schafer? He wrote 'The Victim and His Criminal', his book played on Hans von Hentig's book title. This was significant because he used the term 'functional responsibility' in place of victim precipitation. Who was Menachem Amir? What major factors did he find in his victim- precipitated rape study? Amir was a student of Marvin Wolfgang, and he wrote Patterns of Forcible Rape. In his study he replicated Wolfgang's methodology. Major factors he found were... Alcohol consumption Wearing revealing or seductive clothing Using risque language Have a bad reputation Being in the wrong place at the wrong time What are the Four areas of emphasis that Victimologists study? Creation of definitions of victims Application of these definitions Post victimization behavior Systems for dealing with victims
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