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Islamic Near East, Week One

by: Ari Notetaker

Islamic Near East, Week One HIST131010

Marketplace > University of Delaware > History > HIST131010 > Islamic Near East Week One
Ari Notetaker
GPA 3.6
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About this Document

These notes cover class discussion from the first week.
Rudolph Matthew
Class Notes
history, Near East, middle east, islam





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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ari Notetaker on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST131010 at University of Delaware taught by Rudolph Matthew in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see ISLAMIC NEAR EAST:1500-PRESENT in History at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
2/08-2/12/2016 Islamic Near East: 1500- Present Week 1 - Not just Arabs, but Turks and Iranians/Persians occupy the Middle East - The physical geography of the Middle East is extremely important for life and habitation • Harsh conditions (desert landscape, drought) • Consequence of geography: nomadic lifestyles (tribal) are popular. This leads to instability and vulnerability of settled groups in oases which were commonly exhausted of resources by nomads. - Muhammad was born in Makka, a wealthy town with a large population (10,000) and a commercial environment, c. 570 • Orphaned at the age of six, he was raised by his grandfather, then by his uncle. • Married a woman fifteen years his senior when he was 25. • He went out into the desert and came back with a message from God, which became Islam, and started preaching his message in 610. • Message: (1) repent and come back to God because the day of judgement would come, (2) the worship of multiple gods was wrong, and (3) there is only one true God. • Due to pressure from his homeland, in 621, he migrated to Madinah where his preachings were accepted (journey became known as the hijra). There, he became chief and judge, in addition to being the prophet, causing some verses later written in the Quran to be political in nature. • He went back to Makka and reconquered it in 630 through tribal warfare. • He died in 632. - Islam: submission to the will of God. • Islam is the last and most perfect revelation compared to Jewish and Christian religions (which came earlier, but are somewhat valid). Islam is based on God’s final word and appeal to humans. 1 2/08-2/12/2016 • Focused more on the Oneness of God compared to Christianity (Father/Son/Holy Ghost). • There is no Son of God (the word did not become flesh). • God is unknowable, transcendent, and unreachable. To say He had a son is to reject his oneness. • Jesus is accepted as a respectable prophet, but is not, and should not be, considered the Son of God. - What Islam initially accomplished in tribes: human agency, human free will, and equality (racial and social, but not sexual) - Abu Bakr (control 632-634): First caliph (successor) after the death of Muhammad. • “Commander of the Faithful” • Considered as an illegitimate leader because he was not from Muhammad’s bloodline. - (Shia)t Ali: Fourth caliph. • Considered closer to being of Muhammad’s bloodline, even if not directly. • The people wanted an open line to God. • Shias persisted to be an alternative view of Islam because they offered a counter- narrative to the majority of Muslims who were influence by the prior three, non- bloodline caliphs (Sunnys) 2


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