Chem 1030, Week 2 Notes
Chem 1030, Week 2 Notes CHEM 1030
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmyne Jackson on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1030 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Brett Cagg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Chemistry I in Chemistry at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Chem 1030 - Brett Cagg Week 2: 1/25, 1/27 KEY: Vocab. Clicker Question (CQ) Answer to CQs ? = questions asked in class You have a leak in the plumbing of your sink. You measure that it leaks at a rate of 15.0cm^3/min. How many liters of water will be on your floor when you come back from class ? (assume 50.min lecture). A. 0.15L B. 0.75L C. 7.5x10^5L D. 1.5x10^5 2.1 Atoms First • Atom: the smallest quantity of matter that still retains the properties of matter o Can be divided smaller and smaller until its eventually only a single atom remains o Dividing it any smaller would not make it an atom • Element: a substance that cannot be broken down into two or more simpler substances by any means o Oxygen, helium, gold 2.2 Subatomic Particles and Atomic Structure • Radiation: emission and transmission of energy in the form of waves • Cathode ray tube: consists of two metal plates sealed inside a glass tube from which most of the air has been evacuated o Researchers discovered that like charges repel each other, and opposite charges attract one another --> ELECTRONS (-) • Mass of an e = 9.10 x 10 -28g § **Note: the mass of the electron I just gave you is in grams NOT amu. o Particle Mass (g) Mass (amu) Charge ( C ) Charge unit + -24 -19 Proton (p ) 1.67262 x 10 1.0073 + 1.6022 x 10 +1 0 -24 Neutron (n ) 1.67493 x 10 1.0086 0 0 - -28 -4 -19 Electron (e ) 9.10938 x 10 5.4858 x 10 • 1.6022 x 10 -1 • Protons: positively charged particles found around the nucleus • Neutrons: electronically neutral particles found in the nucleus • Electrons: negatively charged particles around the nucleus What are isotopes? How many neutrons are in the Atomic symbol representation written on the board? What element has 5 protons? Boron iCQ: How many neutrons and electrons are in Oxygen -18? • 8 neutrons and 0 electrons • 10 neutrons and 10 electrons • 18 electrons • 10 neutrons 8 electrons 2.3 Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Isotopes • Mass number: total number of protons and neutrons and protons o Mass number = # of protons + # neutrons • Isotopes: atoms that have the same atomic number, but different mass numbers 2.4 Nuclear Stability • The nucleus is a small portion of the total volume of an atom o The nucleus contains most of the atom's mass because protons and neutrons are located there o Stability of the atomic nucleus can be related to density o The highest known element density is 22.6g/ cm3 o The average atomic nucleus is roughly 9x10^12 (or 9 trillion) times as dense as the densest element known 2.5 Average Atomic Mass • Atomic mass: is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) o 1 amu = 1/12 the mass of a carbon -12 atom o Avg. mass C = (0.9893) (12.00000 amu) + (0.0107) (13.003355 amu) = 12.011 amu • The average atomic mass on the periodic table represents the average mass of the naturally occurring mixture of isotopes 2.6 The Periodic Table • Periodic Table: a chart in which elements having similar chemical and physical properties are grouped together • The PT is organized into horizontal rows = periods and vertical columns = groups • To the left: mostly metals (except Hydrogen); To the right: mostly non -metals • Stair step: separate the metalloi ds (not quite metals… b/w a metal and non -metals since it has properties of both) • Metals are known as good conductors; Non -metals do not conduct heat and electricity • Group 1A: Alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) as you go up the reaction in water increa ses • Group 2A: Alkaline Earth Metals • Group 6A: Chalcogens (O, S, Se, Te, Po) • Group 7A: Halogens (salt former) (F, Cl, Br, I, At) • Group 8A: Noble Gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) • Groups 1B and 3B-8B: Transition elements or transition metals (Groups 4-10 **labeled differently on PTs) iCQ: ID the element that is an alkaline earth metal in the third tow of he PT • Mg • NA • Ca • B 2.7 The Mole and Molar Mass • Mole: defined as the amount of a substance tha t contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon -12 • This experimentally determined number is called Avogadro's number (N ) A 23 o N A 6.0221415x10 o Typically rounded to 6.022x10 23 • Why would chemists have the need for suc h a counting number? • Why do we need to have a need for other counting numbers: dozen, gross, ream? • Can we have a mole of anything else besides moles?
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