Week 2: The End of the Revolution and the Beginnings of Professionalism
Week 2: The End of the Revolution and the Beginnings of Professionalism HIST 2051-001
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Brogan on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2051-001 at University of Cincinnati taught by James Streckfuss in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see American Military History in History at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Streckfuss Amy Brogan 1/19 & 1/21 2016 End of the Revolutionary War The “Information Operations” War – 1770-1783 th o “The Bloody Massacre perpetuated…By a Party of the 29 Regt” – Print – Paul Revere, 1770 o “Common Sense” – Pamphlets – Thomas Paine, 1776 Other pamphlets written at the time by others were written under pseudonyms, writing = hanging o “Death of Jane McCrea” – Painting – John Vanderlyn, 1804 Based on the 1777 death of Jane McCrea, a Loyalist killed by Native Americans. Her death was used as a reason to become a Patriot with the argument that the British could no longer protect Loyalists, nor bring the guilty party in McCrea’s death to justice. (The NA were partnered with the British army. The General in command told her fiancé that if they did anything against the perpetrators, then the whole population of NA would cut ties with the British.) o Washington up-kept networks of spies Spy Museum in Washington (Have to pay for, not part of the Smithsonian) o Propaganda Today Commercials, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube ISIS on YouTube, using it to recruit people to their cause o Declaration of Independence – Most famous propaganda Argument from Colonist for Independence Document needed to explain why they are tearing away from Britain, had to lay it out logically New Concept: governments derive their powers from the people up till this, it was understood that princes had the right to rule, given by God List of Grievances: Standing armies in times of peace Quartering of troops Taking away their charters Taxes Charters taken away Evolution of British Strategy o 1775 – British are still treating it as a localized problem o 1776 – fighting is still concentrated in denser population areas, but through several colonies o New York Campaign: initial idea was to attack New York to cut New England off from the rest of the colonies because it was the head of the radicals Once war got underway: British sent 32,000 troops to New York with help from Navy, commanded by General Hall Washington split his forces but was put on the run. The British got hung up, so the patriots escaped and regrouped in Manhattan. Hall did not take opportunity to take out the flank-able Patriots o Retreat through New Jersey Washington engaged in pin-prick attacks on Trenton and Princeton NJ. Minor wins in casualties, enough to run British into New York and keep the revolution alive. Important to Washington to keep the revolution alive. The Longer the war, the greater the advantage to the colonists o 1779-1781 – British moved south attacking population centers o Campaign of 1777 – lack of coordination and unity of command Other British commanders in the area other than Hall, no over-all power Right hand not knowing what the left hand is doing Washington figured out where Hall was heading and left for Philadelphia Philly home fo continental congress, closet thing to capital at the time Brandywine Creek – Hall defeats Washington and takes Philly; Washington loses at a German town, but Hall could not demolish the continental army Saratoga – Sept-Oct 1777 -quickibility of local militia, giving the regular forces a problem and not easily defeated; McGowan surrenders at Saratoga Showed French that colonist strong enough to defeat British, but need help, so they obliged o Enter the French (and the Spanish, more in money than in troops) Why did the French get in? Enemy of British What did they hope to gain? How did the Franco-American Alliance change the war? Navy brought by the French Alliance: Rochambeau says not to depend on the colonist because they could not do this on their own, but to send troops, ships, and money. o British Command Climate LTG Henry Clinton: gain the hearts and subdue the minds of America LTC Banastre Tarleton: Nothing will secure the people but fire and sword Clausewitz – 2 military philosophers, War is an expansion of Politics Trinity o Faux pas of Pacification Boots on the ground v. hearts and minds Hiring foreign mercenaries Fomenting slave rebellions Southerners less afraid of British than slave uprising More slaves than southern colonists British hadn’t hurt them yet o Attack and take over ports, move in and burn crops o Now Southerners support the revolution o Support he British and you will be free Lived up to their promises here, as many as 50,000 slaves leave with British and gain freedom Inciting Native Americans to raids against frontiers Why move south? Lots of loyalists in the south, lest revolution support in the south, help in the south Cut off over sea support and trade (tobacco, rice, indigo) financing insurgents Geographic proximity to West Indies and French threat Strong pro-British Indian tribes along southern frontier and support of slaves Large, sparsely settled and loosely organized territory easier to deal with, unlike New England The Fall of Savannah – rebel forces crushed at Camden, but… Pacification Problem -how much force structure is enough? What’s wrong with trying to occupy and hold each territory? o Split up your force too much British Try to turn territory over to loyalists (working as police) as quickly as possible o The Next Step: Pacification Problems are more than British could handle, Clinton gets it “pay particular attention to restrain the [loyal] militia from offering violence to innocent and inoffensive people” – Sir Henry Clinton – inspector general of militia o War in Britain Keeping the war going in the colonies depends on political support in parliament William Pit Sr. and Jr. Edmund Burke – “I venture to say no war can be long carried on against the will of the people. People crushed by laws have no hope but will evade power. If the laws are their enemies they will be enemies to the law, and those who have the most to hope and nothing to lose will always be dangerous” Seen as a traitor, “should not have bent to colonial wishes” National debt is enormous, French and Indian war was expensive, now the revolutionary war is expensive, and they can’t just pass the cost to the colonists if they lose – 260 million pounds o Yorktown – Oct 1781 Washington moving from Pennsylvania south, British commander Greene known for using guerilla warfare and Francis Marion “The swamp fox”, end up isolating General Cornwalace, Cornwalace might rally by sea, but French navy shows up at Yorktown and keeps them from retreat, has to surrender Surrender = loss of support in Great Britain and war ends Independence o As a brand new country and Brand new government o Articles of confederation Problems: weak and don’t give federal govt much power, they didn’t want to sound too much like Britain; there was only congress and they weren’t very powerful and couldn’t raise money or troops at will Who’s going to pay for a navy? Not Vermont, we’re landlocked! Everybody doesn’t have to buy/pay in. Makes it hard for Congress to have any control The American revolution and Current CI/I Doctrine? o Old British fighting insurgencies: How well did the British do these? Center of gravity: the people and legitimacy Relationship between security and force ratios Too harsh = more enemies, do nothing = enemy still grows Today: times for laying low and times for action? Is it better to let the locals do it badly than for me to stay there? o They do it: boost in unity and belief in themselves o We do it: they are just going to keep messing things up and we’ll be over there again but against different leaders Understanding the environment The political more than military nature of solution Importance of information operations o Insurgency and counterinsurgency paradoxes: The more you use force, the less secure you are T.E. Lawrence – archaeologist, sent into the desert and becomes active in fighting in WWI, puts together the “27 articles of dealing with Arabs” The more force you use, the less effective Sometimes, doing nothing is the best reaction The best weapons of COIN do not shoot The HN security forces doing something poorly is sometimes better than us doing it well Vietnam: we beat the heck out of the North, but the North won If a tactic works this week, it may not next week. Work in this province, it won’t work in the next Tactical success guarantees nothing This War o British see this as a law enforcement problem, not assessing it correctly, make no attempts to capture the minds and hopes of their own colonists, they look at it as group of rabble-rousing rebels= Phase 1; Phase 2 = Boston Tea party begins insurgency; Phase 3: Battle of Saratoga, loyalists assumed and real have to be protected, war is expanding o Clausewitz, On War, Book 1, Chapter 1 – fight the style war that’s being fought o Militia Organization: simplified tactical operations b/c they aren’t professionals and not well trained; belded experience and novice troops; increased regimental training; created provisional units (called minutemen) o Skirmishes in Mass Battle of Lex.: 1 strategic target of British, British easily defeated the ad hoc minutemen Battle of Concord: AM used NA warfare tactics, defeated the British, increased moral of colonists Battle of Bunker Hill: British failed first 2 attempts, received 400 fresh troops rd and succeeded on 3 attempt, British may have won the battle, but they failed to meet the strategic mission, lost 44% of forces o 2 continental Congress 1775 – congress convened to petition Am rights – recognizes deficiencies, lack of well-trained soldiers, no central control over established regiments Continental army formed – GW became commander, reformed army, increase southern morale o Strategy: England: traditional warfare techniques, capture land and keep it, navy use, mercenaries, native Americans and English neighbors American: foreign assistance, attack isolated forces, regular army & militia, drafting militia, beginnings of a general staff, retain initiative, enlist Tories Battle of Long Island o Strategic importance of New York Americans: advantage over terrain; however, captured soldiers breached this advantage British: won and the Americans fled to Brooklyn o British continued with their strategy to take New York and New England Capture the land where they believed the rebels were, worked in the short term American morale declined Colonist began to lose faith Battle of Trenton o Washington launched a surprise attack on Dec 26 Wanted to draw support from troops Took advantage of expiring contracts o Surrounded Trenton o Hessians surrendered o Built confidence and loyalty among troops Battle of Princeton o American troops at Assunpink Creek o British hunted down the continental army Delayed by a skirmish with rebels on the way Complications crossing the creek until following day o Washington’s troops evacuated toward Princeton Assised Brigadier General Hugh Mercer’s troops to defend the British once again Changed the tide of the war Question on the Day: How was it the world’s preeminent economic and political superpower of the late 15 century was unable to win against a loose confederation of dysfunctional, divided, backward, and weak states? o Guerilla war o Mindsets of the Americans (this is out home and we must defend it) and the British (Easy war, from another continent that takes time, effort, and money to supply troops and to upkeep them) o British dependent on their Navy, if the Americans did not gain the French Navy, we may not have won French Navy also important because it forces the British to pay attention to the Carribean; Americans not a threat out on the ocean; British have to dilute their forces to guarding the ocean Summary o Where are we now? Army spends peacetime training and reviewing what they did (Today) Then: Washington reviews the acts taken during the war o Continental army vs. State Militia Beginnings of Professionalism – 1783-1860 Napoleon’s approach to war o Formally a gentleman approach, take land by strategy, small battles, and political threats o Napoleon: wanted to destroy the enemy and their army Peacetime Military System: “well-regulated and disciplined militia sufficiently armed” o Americans against a regular, standing army Expensive, the British did it with Oliver Cromwell Strong national government vs. loose federation of states Afraid of a strong government that reflected what they had just broken away from No one commander to make peace treaties or enact laws o The Support for militia system declined o Washington’s solution: Balanced approach Regulars would protect the land and shore More navy than army Uniformed militia would defend on the local level Federal government would supply weaponry and equipment Academies would train and instruct forces o Congress rejected Washington’s proposal o June 1784 – a long time has gone by 718 total troops– and some states fell short in their enlisting Military fell victim to Articles of confederation shortcomings o Still dependent on militia Shay’s rebellion: Daniel Shay = farmer in Massachusetts, depression hit and farmers couldn’t pay their debts, mobs attempted to prevent debt executions by closing down court houses so no judgment enacted. Shay leads revolt and capture of arms. Congress calls on the states for a 1500-man force Nationalists petrified by the rebellion; Washington, who didn’t frighten easily, was “mortified beyond expression.” Crisis atmosphere – led to constitutional convention o Second Continental congress and the Bill of Rights The second amendments: a well-regulated militia, right of citizens to bear arms In order of right to bear arms and free state, condition to maintain militia (militia in place of a standing army, feared a standing army) Originally he fourth, the first two weren’t ratified so everything behind hem moved up two spots Supply questions? Militia vs. National Guard Society of Cincinnati – elites, heredity, Male DAR, qualifying ancestor, military officers, membership could be passed on through male heirs Political ideology and party politics: nationalism (Alexander Hamilton – federalist) vs. Republicanism (Jeffersonian republicans) Meeting called to amend articles of confederation: get rid of them completely and start over Distinguish between army and the militia, congress can summon a land force and a navy, can make regulations for state militia, can activate militia Constitution split control with states over military Training of units is state responsibility though congress writes training rules o 1789 – department of war 1792 calling forth act (delegated power of calling the militia to the president, only after he had asked them to disperse and after asking permission from a judge; can’t be called out for more than three months in a year), uniform militia act (all able-bodied white men between 18-45 to enroll; all reenrolled men to equip themselves and training by the state [uniformity problems between states]) = small standing army, minuscule navy so we have coastal forts just in case Small navy in form of frigates – Startart believed in state of the art battleships and industrial base to sustain them over long term Designed for commerce protection or for battle on the Atlantic? Two different forms of ship Jefferson builds small, one-gun ships for patrolling coastline Time for Revolutionary Change: America in 1790’s and 1850 o Demographic revolution Population increases 1770-2,205,000 to 1850-23,191,876 (19.6 million rural, 3.2 million urban, 2.2 million immigrant) Territory: land and water increases in square miles 13 states in 1790 30 states in 1850 o Political R (next week) o Market R: industrialization Power looms Building factories o Transportation R: construction of canals (Erie: Hudson to Great Lakes) von Mulki – Prussian general builds a railroad in “Germany” (not till 1865), concerned with the possibility of a two-front war, one with Germans attacked by Russia and France (Napoleon) at the same time; builds the railroad to transport troops and supplies from one side of the country to protect boundaries Our railroad for commercial purposes; commercial needs same gauge rail as neighbor so the train will fit in both territories, brought about a standard gauge, need for standard time zones (originally local option) Steamboat: can sail upstream against the current; originally a pull boat hauled along the coast by mules on the shore; also didn’t need the wind to sail Sailing ship can go anywhere with the wind Steam engines needed loading stations for loading up on coal every once and a while needed a coal infrastructure o Communication R – (Next Week) Relevance: is change occurring at a faster of slower rate now than then? How do militaries adapt during rapidly changing times? How did the antebellum US Army adapt during its own period of rapid change? Are the officers that different from yours?
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