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Review Sheet for NATS 101 at UA

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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.

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Date Created: 02/06/15
Forces that affect the Wind Newton s Laws 1 An object at rest Will remain at rest An object in motion Will remain in motion traveling at a constant speed and in a straight line as long as no forces are exerted on the object 2 An object including an air mass Will always accelerate in the direction of the total force acting on it Where F 2 Mass x Acceleration Forces on an air mass affecting Wind 0 Pressure gradient force 0 Centripetal force 0 Coriolis force 0 Friction Forces that affect the Wind Pressure gradient force PGF review The PGF is a horizontal force which acting alone would accelerate air from high towards low pressure 4 V r a r a r H 1030 mb W m 3 hr 1000 mb 40 ms 80 mph Forces that affect the Wind Pressure gradient force PGF reVieW On a weather map the PGF is strongest Where lines of constant pressure are closest together MAP VIEW 0 200 400 600 l Scale km Fig 611 p151 Formation of Direct Thermal Circulation Air flow from higher toward lower pressures occurs a at lower altitudes only b at higher altitudes only X c at both higher and lower altitudes rrrrrrrr n2 Go to Visualization gt Forces that affect the Wind Centripetal force CenF The centnfugal force is an apparent force felt by an object rotating around a circle The actual force is the centripetal force keeping the object on a circular path 39 39 39 39 39 D Apparent centrifugal force gt Centripetal force needed to keep object going in a circle gt Direction of motion of rotating object Forces that affect the wind corlohs force CF Apparent force de ects ball to the right as the merrygoround turns counter The Coriolisforce like the clockwise or cyclonically centrifugal force is an apparent force due to the earth s rotation Apparent path as seen by observer on rotating platform Ball Ball Actual path Platform A nonrotating Platform B rotating m was Human gtEvmbDnll Forces that affect the Wind Coriolis force CF Airplane s path OEarth rotates counter clockwise when Viewed from the NH OAirplane s path is deflected to the right southward for a plane Y headed from west to east in the lAircraft39s Idalam NH to the left in the SH acme path I oCoriolis force increases from zero ignvai g on at the equator to a maximum 1 v 7 r value at the poles north or south pole lt7 Large No deviation a was l39hmmnn JimGm Forces that affect the Wind An airplane flying south in the northern hemisphere I a is deflected to the east b is deflected to the west ll c could be deflected in either direction Forces that affect the Wind Coriolis force CF The Coriolis force only affects an objects direction never an objects speed The amount of de ection depends on 0 The rotation speed of the earth 0 The latitude of the object 0 The object s speed The Coriolis force acts at right angles to the wind only in uencing wind direction The Coriolis force is negligible over short distances even for strong winds Forces that affect the Wind Straight line ow aloft PGF vs CF 1 Wind is set in motion by PGF 2 4 Wind is de ected by CF but continues to accelerate due to PGF 5 CF and PGF are equal no net force on Wind Wind continues in a straight line at right angles to the PGF and CF geostTophic wind Forces that affect the Wind Winds around a low aloft PGF vs CF vs CenF 1 Wind set in motion by PGF toward low pressure region 2 CF de ects Wind to the right in the NH as Wind accelerates towards the low 3 CF and PGF are in opposite directions net force is just the centripetal force required to keep the Wind going in a circle Wind continues at constant velocity around low cyclonic aw CYCLONIC FLOW 854 mb Aims Alr parcel a Low pressure area cyclone aloft o mus Thomsan Eraumu Forces that affect the Wind Winds around a high aloft PGF vs CF vs CenF ANTICYCLONIC FLOW 1 Wind set in motion by PGF away from high pressure region 2 CF de ects Wind to the light in the NH as Wind accelerates away from the high 3 CF and PGF are in opposite directions net force is just the centripetal force needed to keep Wind going in a circle Wind x continues at constant velocity around high anticyclonic ow b High pressure area anticyclone aloft 472005 mmmnr ammoni Forces that affect the Wind Review of an upper level 500 mb chart zonal Winds Mues kscamie Dev haw Knuts m m 7 72 72 H w W M M M M M M m M M M 72777 a mm 5542 5649 73777 FFFFFFFEFFFFWH 11871231037107 meridional Winds Forces that affect the wind Surface winds 0 Thefrictionalforce is present up to N1000 In and reduces Wind speed in this layer boundary layer Effect is greater at 0 In than at 1000 In 0 A reduction in Wind speed also reduces the CF 0 Thus the Winds in the boundary layer point slightly towards a L away from a H since the CF is not exactly balancing the PGF 3000 meters Ammde 0 meters a n Survace map Northern Hemisphere n Enos mm mam

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