Week 1 Notes Organizational Behavior
Week 1 Notes Organizational Behavior MGT 3813
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Smith on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 3813 at Mississippi State University taught by Emily Marett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
1/23/16 MGT 3813 – Org.Behavior § Evaluative statement or judgment about an object, people, or event § Why should managers care about employees’ attitudes? § Attitudes provide warnings of potential problems § Attitudes influence behavior § Short answer: not always § Attitudes don’t ALWAYS predict behavior! 1 1/23/16 § Dissonance:guilt/anxiety § Leon Festinger (late 1960s) § Attitudes follow behavior § What is it? §Any incompatibility an individual experiences between two or more attitudes,or between an attitude and a behavior §Examples: § Why do individuals try to reduce dissonance? §Inconsistency is uncomfortable § Three ways individuals reduce dissonance: §Alter behavior (Actually change the behavior) §Alter attitudes § Example:“I don’t believe in the hype. Grandma smoked 10 packs a day and lived until 90.” §Rationalize discrepancy § Example: “I don’t have time to join the gym this semester.” § Job Satisfaction* Most Important* § Job Involvement § Empowerment § Organizational Commitment § Perceived Organizational Support § Engagement 2 1/23/16 § Job Satisfaction § A positive feeling about a job,resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics § Do you like your job? § What causes job satisfaction? § Job Characteristics § Enjoyable § Challenging & stimulating § Having autonomy § Using a variety of skills § Performing significant work § Salary? § Only matters up until $40,000 a year § Relationships at work § Stress andWork-life balance § What causes job satisfaction? § Personality? § Positive affective disposition (SEES GLASS ½ FULL) § Self-esteem,YES! § Why? § Person-environment fit § Abilities match _DEMANDS_ § Company values match our values § Psychological contract – (PROMISE THAT THE COMPANY HAS MADE TOYOU.) § Organizational justice High self – esteem leads to higher job satisfaction (higher self – esteem pursues more challenging & stimulating jobs that gives jobs satisfaction) 3 1/23/16 § AKA, motivation-hygiene theory § Traditional view: Dissatisfaction Satisfaction § Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job doesn’t make it satisfying! § The factors that lead to job satisfaction are separate and different from those that lead to job dissatisfaction. Motivators = Positive Satisfaction No Satisfaction Hygiene Factors = Negative Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction 4 1/23/16 • Motivators: ▫ Promotion opportunities ▫ Opportunities for personal growth ▫ Recognition ▫ Responsibility ▫ Achievement • Hygiene Factors: What are the criticisms ▫ Quality of supervision of this theory? ▫ Pay ▫ Company policies ▫ Physical working conditions ▫ Job security ▫ Relationships with others § High job satisfaction leads to: § ↑ Organizational citizenship (DOING EXTRA STUFF NOT PART OF YOUR JOB FOR THE GOOD OF THE COMPANY) § ↑ Customer satisfaction § ↓ Absenteeism § ↓ Turnover § ↓ Deviant behavior § ↑ Productivity??? Active What kind of behaviors do each of these four categories exhibit? BEST EXIT (Leaving) VOICE (Voicing their concerns) Which category is the (Speaking up) hardest to identify? Destructive Constructive WORST HARDEST TO NEGLECT IDENTIFY (Reducing LOYALTY (Not effort) telling their (Neglecting problems; stay working hard; their job) wishful thinking) Passive 5 1/23/16 § What can managers do? § Provide mentally challenging work § What about factories? Fast food? § Provide equitable rewards § Provide a supportive working environment § Develop a culture where colleagues are supportive of each other § 2002 study at U.S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs (5,000 people surveyed) § 36% reported “persistent hostility” from coworkers and supervisors § Experiencing at least one aggressive behavior at least weekly for a period of a year § 20% reported being bothered “moderately” to “a great deal” by abusive and aggressive behaviors § Which included yelling,temper tantrums,put-downs,glaring, exclusion,nasty gossip and more. 6 1/23/16 § BULLIES = USUALLY TOP PERFORMERS § 91% of nurses reported experiencing verbal abuse § Physicians the most frequent source § 30% British workers have encounters with a bully on a weekly basis § 27% reported experiencing mistreatment at the workplace (Michigan employees) § 10% reported witness “workplace incivility” on a daily basis § Unclear whether men or women more frequently engage in this behavior § More frequently directed towards someone of the same gender (men bully men, women bully women) § Typically directed towards subordinates § Estimates run from 50-80% § Subordinates bullying bosses estimated at 1% § British study (more than 5,000 employees) § 25% reported being victim of bullying § 50% reported witnessing bullying § 73% of the witnesses experienced increased stress § 44% of witnesses worried about becoming targets themselves § Research indicates that 25% of victims quit, along with 20% of witnesses 7 1/23/16 § Damage to Victims and Witnesses §Distraction from tasks § More effort devoted to avoiding nasty encounters than to actual work tasks §Reduced psychological safety § Limits honesty, openness, creativity, suggestions §Loss of motivation and energy at work §Stress-induced psychological and physical illness §Absenteeism §Turnover § 48% intentionally decreased work effort § 47% intentionally decreased time spent at work § 38% intentionally decreased quality of work § 80% lost work time worrying about incident § 63% lost work time avoiding the bully § 66% said performance declined § 78% said commitment to organization had declined § 12% left job due § 25% admitted to taking frustration out on customers § (Harvard Business Review, 2013) § Consequences for Management §Time spent appeasing,calming,counseling,or disciplining the bully §Time spent“cooling off”the victims §Time spent re-organizing departments and teams so bully does less damage §Time spent replacing lost employees § Legal and HR Costs §Anger management and other training for bully §Legal costs/settlements 8 1/23/16 § “The effects of a**holes are so devastating because they sap people of their energy and esteem mostly through the accumulated effects of small, demeaning acts, not so much through one or two dramatic episodes.” § Negative interactions have a five times stronger effect on mood than positive interactions § Establish that you refuse to tolerate this behavior in the workplace. § Make it a rule, communicate it, ENFORCE it. § Get rid of jerks as soon as possible. § Treat bullies/jerks as incompetent employees § Even if they are good at their job duties! § Model and teach constructive conflict § Measure these behaviors on your performance evaluations. § The degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their performance level important to their self-worth. § HOWYOU DESCRIBEYOURSELF (IDENTIFY) § High job involvement leads to: § ↑ Organizational citizenship § ↓ Absenteeism § ↓ Turnover § ↑ Job performance 9 1/23/16 § The belief in the degree to which you influence your work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and the perceived autonomy of their work. § ABILITY TO MAKE DECISIONS § High empowerment leads to: § ↑ Organizational citizenship § ↓ Absenteeism § ↓ Turnover § ↑ Job performance https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXh6ZLT_zqw Whole Foods: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hP0Ub-uQ648 ¨ The extent to which the employee identifies with the organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. ¨ Three types of org. commitment: ¤ Affective:emotional attachment to the organization and belief in its values (STRONGEST) ¤ Continuance:commitment based on perceived economic value of remaining with the organization ¤ Normative:commitment based on an obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons n Which type is the most powerful? § High organizational commitment leads to: § ↓ Absenteeism § ↓ Turnover § ↑ Job performance 10 1/23/16 § The degree to which the employee believes that the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. § High perceived org. support leads to: §↑ Organizational citizenship §↑ Job performance § What can managers do? §Provide equitable rewards §Allow employees to have a voice in decision-making §Ensure that supervisors are supportive § An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for their work. § (TENSION) AREYOU PAYING ATTENTION ON THE JOB.“Are you present.” § High engagement leads to: § ↑ Customer satisfaction § ↑ Job performance § ↓ Turnover § ↓ Accidents 11
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