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CJ Week 2; 01/20, 01/22

by: Courtney Small

CJ Week 2; 01/20, 01/22 CJ 100

Courtney Small

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About this Document

These notes are from Wednesday January 20th, and Friday January 22. Covers the notes week from week 2. 01/20, 01/22
Intro to Criminal Justice
Douglas Klutz
Class Notes
Criminal Justice, intro
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Small on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Douglas Klutz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 01/23/16
The  Role  of  Public  Opinion     •   Public  Opinion  greatly  influences  political  leaders     •   Mass  media  greatly  influences  public  opinion   •   New  Age  of  social  media  has  changed  everything     (Youtube,  Facebook,  Twitter,  etc.)       Crime  rate  actually  isn't  going  up;  its  going  down       Public  safety  as  a  percentage  of  civilian  government  spending  has  increased  since  1965         World  incarnation  Rates  per  100,000  Population     •   United  states  is  number  1   o   Prison  is  a  big  business         Current  Events…..   •   Annual  cost  of  crime?   o   $1.7-­‐$2  trillion!   •   National  Debt  Clock     o   $18  .9  trillion  dollars  close  to  $19  trillion   o   Student  loan  debt-­‐  $1.3  trillion     •   Bank  Robberies-­‐  How  much???   o   For  stealing  $500,000    from  a  bank  10-­‐30  years       LIBOR  Scandal     •   London  Inter  Bank  Offered  Rate   o   What  big  banks  are  tasked  with  what  the  global  interest  rates  should  be     o   Manipulation  of  global  interest  rates     o   Media  isn't  informing  us     o   Has  been  going  on  at  least  since  the  early  1990's   •   Average  interest  rate  calculated/estimated  by  major  banks     •   Financial  institutions,  mortgage  lenders,  and  credit  card  agencies  set  their  own  rates   relative  to  LIBOR     •   Dealt  with  global  interest  rates  of  big  banks         New  Information     •   New  York  Fed  (Federal  Reserve)released  documents  that  showed  they  were  aware  that   banks  were  rigging  the  LIBOR  rate     •   Civil  suits-­‐  class  action  lawsuits  by  individuals,  cities  and  municipalities,  etc.   •   Potentially  billions  of  dollars-­‐UPDATE     •   Class  action  lawsuit  :  you  have  a  large  number  of  individuals  who  are  suing  ,  and  they   come  together  all  as  stakeholders   o   More  numbers  equal  more  power           White-­‐Collar  Crime   •   Full  range  of  frauds  committed  by  business  and  government  professionals     •   Estimated  to  cost  US  somewhere  between  $300-­‐700  billion  annually     •   MF  global,  Bernie  Madoff,  Enron     •   Victimless??       White-­‐Collar  Criminality     •   Edwin  Sutherland  was  the  first  to  publish  this  subject  in  1940-­‐  White-­‐Collar  Criminality     •   "Father  of  White-­‐Collar  Crime"   •   Scholarly  community  was  stunned  by  the  claim  that  "respectable"  executives,   physicians,  and  poiliticans  ("white-­‐collar"  jobs)  frequently  violated  the  public's  trust  and   committed  fraud  costing  millions  of  dollars.         Sutherland's  Views     •   Two  distinct  criteria  for  white-­‐collar  crime:   1.   Crime  had  to  be  committed  in  the  course  of  the  occupation     i.   Had  to  be  done  during  business  hours   2.   Crime  is  undertaken  by  a  "person  of  respectability  and  high  social  status"           Friday,  January  22,  2016       Why  study  white-­‐collar  crime?                          -­‐White-­‐collar  crime  and  “social  costs”                          -­‐Bad  as  the  economic  costs  are,  the  more  worrisome  effects  involve  lower  morale  and   creation  of  distrust  (ex.  financial  institutions)                          -­‐Think  LIBOR!       Physical  Costs  of  White-­‐Collar  Crime   -­‐People  killed,  injured,  made  ill   -­‐Lack  of  safety  regulations,  violating  safety  regulations  (ex.  coal  mining)   -­‐Toxins  in  the  workplace,  toxins  released  into  the  community  (ex.  asbestos)   -­‐Defective  products  and  false  advertising  (pharmaceuticals,  automobiles,  etc)                          Ex.  Campbells  Soup,  advertisement  of  soup  had  more  meat  than  what  would  appear  in   can.         Exposure  to  a  Criminal  Culture   -­‐Newcomers  arrive  for  work,  they  soon  learn  that  certain  unethical  and  illegal  business   practices  are  normative   -­‐Resistence  to  breaking  the  law  treated  like  the  new  workers  are  not  “team  players”  (denied   advancement  within  the  company)   -­‐White-­‐collar  crime  is  not  the  result  of  a  “few  bad  apples”  but  of  a  “rotten  barrel”                          -­‐Case  Study:  The  Ford  Pinto                          -­‐Gas  tank  placed  six  inches  from  rear  bumper                          -­‐Japanese  compacts  were  coming  out  and  Ford  wanted  to  rush  production                          -­‐“Normalized”  the  risk   -­‐Aware  of  the  design  flaw,  refused  to  pay  for  a  redesign,  and  decided  it  would  be  cheaper  to   pay  off  possible  lawsuits         White-­‐Collar  Crime                          -­‐Father  of  it  Edward  Sutherland                          -­‐Full-­‐range  of  frauds  committed  by  business  and  government  professionals   -­‐“Ponzi  Scheme”  –fraudulent  business  model  taking  new  client  money  and  paying  back   investors  with  it                            -­‐3  Main  components  of  Ponzi  Schemes                                                  -­‐Seems  legitimate                                                    -­‐Comes  from  a  reliable,  trusted  individual                                                  -­‐All  eventually  fail     Embezzlement   -­‐The  fraudulent  conversion  of  another’s  property  by  a  person  who  is  in  position  of  trust(such  as   an  agent  or  employee)                          -­‐Ex.  Accounting  Embezzlement         Tax  Evasion   -­‐Perpetrator  attempts  to  avoid  paying  taxes  they  would  otherwise  owe   -­‐Ranges  from  filing  tax  forms  with  false  information  to  illegally  transferring  property  so  as  to   avoid  tax  obligations                                Money  Laundering   -­‐Criminal  act  of  filtering  illegally  obtained  “dirty”  money  through  a  series  of  transactions   designed  to  make  the  money  appear  legitimate  “clean”                              Bankruptcy  Fraud                                                  -­‐Concealing  assets  to  avoid  having  to  forfeit  them                                                  -­‐Intentionally  filing  false  or  incomplete  forms                                                  -­‐Ex.  Petition  Mills                                Insurance  Fraud   -­‐Refers  to  any  duplicitous  act  performed  with  the  intent  to  obtain  an  improper  payment  from   an  insurer                                                    -­‐“Hard  Fraud”  (Deliberate  destruction)  vs.  “Soft  Fraud”  (Exaggeration)                                                  -­‐Life  Insurance  Fraud                                                      Counterfeiting   -­‐Someone  copies  or  imitates  an  item  without  having  been  authorized  to  do  so,  and  then  passes   the  copy  off  for  the  genuine  or  original  item     -­‐Ex.  Money,  designer  clothing,  handbags,  watches,  etc.          


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