Social Work 222 - Intro to Social Welfare
Social Work 222 - Intro to Social Welfare SW 222
Popular in Development Social Welfare
Popular in Social Work
This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddi Caudill on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SW 222 at University of Kentucky taught by Teresa A. Powell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Development Social Welfare in Social Work at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
History and Deﬁnition of Social Welfare, Social Welfare Policy, and Social Welfare System Deﬁning Social Welfare –Social welfare – well-being of society –Society’s response to meet some human needs (Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, physiological, safety needs), not all (love/belonging, esteem, self- actualization) –The NASW deﬁnes it as “a nation’s system of programs, beneﬁts, and services that helps people meet those social, economic, educational and health needs that are fundamental to the maintenance of the society”. –The Encyclopedia of Social Work deﬁnes it as “organized activities, interventions, or some other elements that suggest policy and programs to respond to recognized social problems or to improve the well- being of those at risk” What is Social Welfare Policy? –Social welfare policy – organized response or lack of response to a social issue or social problem. –“the laws, rules, and regulations that govern (oversee) the beneﬁts and services provided by governmental and private organizations to assist people in meeting their needs”. They are called ACTS OR LEGISLATION. –Public Social policies are those range of programs and services that are made possible by government, either at the national, state or county levels. –Private Social Services are programs or services that organizations such as religious (Faith-based) or Non- proﬁt (Secular) entities provide to meet the needs of members of the society who are in need. Social Programs Explained -Simply put, the products (tangible and intangible) of any social welfare policy initiative are referred to as Social welfare programs. -“speciﬁed set of activities that are designed to solve social problems and/or to meet basic human needs” (social programs. e.g. Childhood Nutrition in Public schools.) -Note: The Childhood Nutrition Act serves as the Social Policy (law or regulation) that created the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) under-fed children to receive such Nutrition supplement (tangible). Another beneﬁt under this act is health education (intangible).” -Social Workers execute or carry out most of the services that are products of Social Policy. They also contribute to Social Policy decisions and are inﬂuenced by it. Social Welfare System –The Social welfare system is made up of the organized efforts and structures used to provide for our societal well-being –Therefore Social Welfare, Social Welfare Policies and Social Programs all make-up or constitute the Social Welfare System –Note that Social Welfare is stigmatized as recipients are perceived as inadequate, lazy, illegitimate (children born out of wedlock), or dependent on the system, etc. –Social Workers have a responsibility to change this perception and ensure that the human worth and dignity of individuals who receive welfare services are protected. WHY DOES STIGMA EXIST TOWARDS PEOPLE RECEIVING WELFARE BENEFITS? Approaches to Social Welfare Provision –The Safety Net Approach This is temporary provision of social services for those considered incapable of meeting speciﬁc needs. Upon reducing the level of the problem (e.g. child at risk), the program is terminated. So it deals with the residue of problems when alternatives have been exhausted. It is selective and emergency. Programs here fall under Residual Social Welfare Policy (e.g. TANF). –The Social Utilities Approach Social Welfare programs under this approach are viewed as part of society’s obligation and response to human needs, just like water and power supply utilities. The programs don’t have eligibility as Safety Net does, so they’re Universal. This approach therefore sees meeting human needs as a regular or institutionalized way of responding to the needs of the society. (e.g. Using gov’t provided Day Care or Senior citizens eating at the Senior Center's lunch program) This approach is seen as an Institutional or Universal Social Welfare Policy History and Trends in Social Welfare Policy in America –Social welfare policy is shaped by HISTORICAL EVENTS and is molded by SOCIETAL VALUES. Thus, it is important to understand the history of social welfare policy so that we can better understand today’s policy. –American Social Welfare Policy reﬂects the societal values of the majority culture in this country. –Social welfare policy is often made in the interest of the majority group irrespective of its impact upon minority groups. COLONIALAMERICA 1690-1800 –Poverty is a personal misfortune, not a public responsibility –America is land of opportunity so you have little excuse not to succeed –Calvinist idea that idleness = deviance and mischief PRE-CIVILWAR 1800 – 1860 –Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration increase resource disparity –Creation of new problems that no longer can be taken care of just by family – mental illness, disability, orphaned children – beginning of institutions, poor houses, sanitariums –County representative collected taxes in order to provide for the poor and needy –“rugged individualism” Dorthea Dix -1843 –Dix begins her campaign for state sponsorship of special institutions for individuals with mental illness –Dix successfully lobbied state legislatures to create mental hospitals that could provide more humane treatment –Similar movements started around the needs of delinquents, poor children, people with developmental disabilities and physical disabilities – “Dorothea Dix played an instrumental role in the founding or expansion of more than 30 hospitals for the treatment of the mentally ill. She was a leading ﬁgure in those national and international movements that challenged the idea that people with mental disturbances could not be cured or helped. She also was a staunch critic of cruel and neglectful practices toward the mentally ill, such as caging, incarceration without clothing, and painful physical restraint” Civil War and Post Civil War –War creates a tremendous need for relief efforts –Freedmen’s Bureau enacted – ﬁrst federal social service system (1865-1872) (assistance to former slaves, orphanages, food rations, but was abandoned, regarded as 1st Attempt at Social Welfare) –Continued economic growth –Begin to see structural problems impacting poverty Progressive Era 1875 – 1925 –Rapid Economic Growth –Increased Poverty –Greater divide between “haves” and “have-nots” –Social Problems can no longer be taken care of by the church… –Middle Class Reform surfaces –Charity Organization Societies – lobbied for clean housing and more jobs -Settlement Houses – helped immigrants adjust – women moved into houses to be role models –Labor Organizations –Suffrage Movement (women voting) Charity Organization Societies –Est. in England initially, transplanted to the U.S. in 1877 –Stressed individual factors in the development of poverty –New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor -used home visiting volunteers to ensure that “moral deﬁcits” would be attended to along with economic needs -reformers began to call for a more “scientiﬁc approach” in the face of increased needs due to industrialization (e.g. overcrowded cities, exploited, low-paid working class, economic depression, structural unemployment) –Mixture of concerns (increased demands for relief, fear of militancy among poor and working class, belief in individual responsibility of dependency) led to rise of COS movement –“Friendly visitors” were assigned to needy families, primary functions were to 1) correct the character ﬂaws of the poor 2) inspire them to strive for independence –Goals were difﬁcult to sustain, insufﬁcient numbers of volunteers resulted in COSs employing agents to investigate applications for relief and visit the poor –Agents were major forerunner of professional social workers MARY ELLEN RICHMOND (1861-1928) –Famous head of COS (Baltimore and Philadelphia) –Went on to write the ﬁrst social work textbook, Social Diagnosis, in 1917 –Inspired the New York Charity Organization Society to found New York Summer School of Applied Philanthropy (now Columbia University School of Social Work) through her speeches and the awareness she raised of tasks performed by charity workers Settlement houses –Idea of SH originated in England –Unlike COS movement, SH movement focused on environmental factors instead of individual defects –Jane Addams founded Hull House after a visit to England’s Toynbee Hall (live-in laboratory for the study of poverty for univ. students) –Hull House was founded in a poor immigrant neighborhood of Chicago in 1889 by Addams and friend, Ellen Gates Starr –Women had greater leadership role in SH movement than in COS –HH exempliﬁed research, service and reform that characterized much of the US SH movement –Started with the desire to be “good neighbors” to those living in poverty and studying the conditions in which they lived –As they examined structural elements of poverty, Starr and Addams began to design services and reform –Factors they observed were: exploitation of immigrants from S. and E. Europe, poor employment conditions, inadequate wages, lack of educational opportunities, substandard housing and inefﬁcient city gov’t –In response, HH offered day nursery for children, club for working girls, lectures and cultural programs, meeting space for neighborhood political groups –Addams also supported labor unions, lobbied for sanitary and housing reform, and established Immigrant’s Protective League to ﬁght discrimination Jane Addams (1860-1935) (NASW) –Demonstrated the ethics and values that became the basis of the 100-year-old social work profession –SHs grew out of Addams’ and her associates’ desire to rectify what they believed were gross and unjust differences in the opportunities available to the different social classes –Addams was driven to better understand the poor and improve their lives and lived in the community among the people she helped –Addams and her colleagues believed receiving aid needn’t be a degrading experience. "We have all accepted bread from someone, at least until we were fourteen," she once remarked. –Concern about the effects of war on social progress led Addams to a prominent role in the formation of the National Progressive Party in 1912 –In 1915 Addams became president of both the Women’s Peace Party and the Women’s International Peace Congress at The Hague. –Her paciﬁst work won her the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize World War I Era –Relative economic prosperity, people living beyond their means –Millions of unemployed seasonal workers –New low wage occupations begin to grow –Distribution of wealth shifts dramatically THE GREAT DEPRESSION AND THE NEW DEAL –Individualism gives way to social responsibility -First New Deal Social Welfare Programs (In response to the Collapse of the U.S Stock Exchange of 1929 and the Economic Depression) 1. (FERA)-Federal Emergency Relief Act ----> temporary relief until people were again employed 2.(CCC)-Civilian Conservation Corps ----> provide jobs to those on relief – dam construction, etc. 3.(WPA)- Works Progress Administration ---- >building gov’t structures 2nd New Deal ----> Passage of the Social Security Act of 1935 by President Franklin Roosevelt. -This legislation portrayed the US as a Welfare State by providing social insurance and public assistance Social insurance ----> collectively funded program for workers and their dependents to provide economic resources (i.e. social security) Public assistance ----> requires no involvement prior to economic need – assistance to persons at/below certain income level/meeting certain criteria (means test) -This marks a landmark change in social welfare policy in the US and signaled the take off of programs such as AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children). 1940- 1960 –A time of relative quiet; expansion of the federal government during WWII, economic prosperity; women in the workforce –1960s – Civil Rights Movement –President Johnson’s 1965 Economic Opportunity Act (EOA) was central to the “War on Poverty” Initiated by President Kennedy. –“Great Society” – federal support for head start, job corps, Food Stamps, etc. –1965 Economic Opportunity Act birthed programs such as: Job Training ,Medicaid/ Medicare, Career Development, Head Start, Upward Bound, Family Planning Services, Volunteers in Service to America( VISTA), Community Action Programs. 4 social and economic trends since the war on poverty: 1. Growing Earnings Inequality 2. Changing Nature of Work 3. Increased Atomization of Households 4. Increased Immigration and Population Density 1970s – 1980s –Preoccupation with private interests and a resurgence of the rugged individualism seen in the past –Devolution of government services begins **Devolution- the surrender of powers from central government to local government 1990s- 2000s to Date –Bush (I) passes ADA (Americans with Disability Act) in 1990 requiring access to resources for those with disabilities –1992 Clinton’s promise to “end welfare as we know it” –Landmark 1996 Legislation changes 60+ years of social welfare policy in the US –Clinton passes 1996 PRWORA (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act). –Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) replaced AFDC –Gay civil rights debates carry on in 2000s – Devolution continues….. –Provisions for social services to be provided (using federal funds) by charitable, religious or private organizations –precursor to George W. Bush’s “Faith Based Initiative” (Charitable Choice) Components of Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) –Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) - replaces AFDC –Supplemental Security Income (SSI) –Child Support requirements –Restricting Welfare/Public Beneﬁts for Aliens –Child Protection –Child Care –Child Nutrition Programs –National School Lunch Act & Child Nutrition Act of 1966 –Food Stamps and Commodity Distribution – Food Stamps Program, Commodity Distribution Program –Miscellaneous provisions Key Distinctions of TANF –Time-limited Assistance – 60 months –Work Requirements – as designated by the state –No longer provides a “safety net” –Distributed as Block Grants to States –TANF Reserves- funds that are not yet allocated for individuals receiving TANF (“rainy day fund”)
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