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PSY 320 Chapter 3 Notes

by: Elliana

PSY 320 Chapter 3 Notes PSY 320

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Combined textbook & lecture notes covering everything in chapter 3
Drugs & Behavior
Dr. Marc Gellman
Class Notes
Combined textbook & lecture notes covering everything in chapter 2
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elliana on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Marc Gellman in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Drugs & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Chapter 3 Drug Regulation & Policy History • 1800s laissez-faire a▯tude ◦ ^An economic environment in which the government could not regulate what could & couldn't be sold • Reformism ◦ 1890 - 1920 "nadir"/lowest point of race rela▯ons in the U.S. • Concerns about drugs & misconduct associated w. minority racial groups 8191 - 6091 sno▯a l s i ge l ◦ 3 ◦ 1906 Pure Food & Drug Act regulated pharmaceu▯cal manufacturing & sales • Pure cocaine became available mid-1800s • 1900 - Increasing presence in patent medicines & tonics (Coca-Cola) & availability for purchase concerned medical experts • Government began to take control when ppl were becoming poisoned or were sold unlabeled ingredients, etc. • Fraud (patent medicines sold w. no control over what was in them or the effects they had) ◦ False therapeu▯c claims ◦ Habit-forming drug content in elixirs • Issues related to morality & race (alcohol, cocaine, marijuana) ◦ Drug reformers viewed cocaine as responsible for increase in violent crimes among black Southerners • Laws were developed to regulate undesirable behaviors • 1905 Theo Roosevelt recommended that a law be implemented to regulate interstate commerce in misbranded/adulterated food, drinks, & drugs • 1906 Pure Food & Drugs Act was passed ◦ Specifically referred to alcohol, morphine, opium, cocaine, heroine, marijuana, & several other agents ◦ Prohibited interstate commerce in adulterated or misbranded foods & drugs ◦ Defined drugs as "any substance or mixture of substances intended to be used for the cure, mi▯ga▯on, or preven▯on of a disease" ◦ Misbranding referred only to the labeling of products but not their adver▯sement ◦ Each package required to state how much of the drugs were included in the prepara▯on ◦ Any drug could be sold & bought as long as the ingredients were clearly listed in the label : no▯a l s i ge l f o esopr◦u P • Prohibited interstate commerce in misbranded & adulterated food/drink • Misbranding referred only to labeling, not adver▯sing ◦ Later amendments for: • Tes▯ng for safety • Tes▯ng for effec▯veness ◦ 1912 Sherley Amendment • Outlawed "false & fraudulent" therapeu▯c claims on labels 1 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ 1914 Harrison Narco▯cs Act tax law regulated opioids & cocaine • Early 1900s Dr. Hamilton Wright decided US could gain favored trading status w. China by leading interna▯onal efforts to aid the Chinese in reducing opium importa▯on • 1912 Interna▯onal conference resulted in European na▯ons & U.S. to control interna▯onal trade & domes▯c sale/use of substances • In response Dr. Wright dra▯ed a bill submi▯ed by NY Senator Harrison: "An Act to provide for the registra▯on of, with collectors of interna▯onal revenue, & to impose a special tax upon all persons who produce, import, manufacture, compound, deal in, dispense, or give away opium or coca leaves, their salts, deriva▯ves, or prepara▯ons, & for other purposes." • Dealers & dispensers of opioids & cocaine had to register annually, pay small fees, & use special order forms provided by the Bureau of Interna▯onal Revenue • Did not yet criminalize individual use or possession of drugs • Dr. Wright peddled emo▯onal & some▯mes racist public campaigns for addi▯onal drug control ◦ 1919 18th Amendment / Alcohol Prohibi▯on - "Noble Experiment" in the 1920s • Influenced how the na▯on approached other substances associated w. social problems • 18th amendment enforced by the Treasury Department • Narco▯cs Division placed within separate Prohibi▯on unit in 1919 • Applied prohibi▯on laws to habit-forming drugs like opioids • New enforcement methods resulted in growth of illicit drug trade • Opioid dependence seen as a police problem rather than medical one ◦ 1922 Jones-Miller Act • More than doubled maximum penalty fines for dealing illegally imported drugs to $5,000 & 10 yrs imprisonment • Made possession of illegally obtained drugs sufficient for convic▯on • Criminalized users demro f s c▯oc raN fo ua eruB 03 ◦9 1 • Pursued big drug dealers ◦ 1938 Food Drug & Cosme▯c Act • Required that drugs be tested for toxicity before marke▯ng • New Drug Applica▯ons (NDA) had to be sent to the FDA with a full report whether the drug is safe • Also s▯pulated that drug labels give adequate direc▯ons for use or state that they may only be used by prescrip▯on • Dis▯nguished over-the-counter from prescrip▯on drugs ◦ 1962 Kefauver-Harris Amendments • Required that companies seek approval of tes▯ng before using humans for clinical trial • Required adver▯sements for prescrip▯on drugs to summarize info about adverse reac▯ons to drugs • Every new drug must be demonstrated to be effec▯ve for illnesses men▯oned on the label • FDA reviewed products marketed btwn 1938 - 1962 to determine effec▯veness & remove ineffec▯ve drugs from the market ◦ 1965 Drug Abuse Control amendments • Referred to hallucinogens & barbiturates as dangerous drugs • Introduced new classes of drugs to control ◦ 1970 Drug Enforcement Agency • Threw out original tax-based laws 2 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Based on research & ra▯onal approaches in a▯empts to balance public health concerns w. law enforcement issues • Gave increased funding to Department of Health, Educa▯on & Welfare (now Dept. of Health & Human Services) • Established that certain drugs were to be controlled directly rather than thru tax or interstate commerce laws • Responsibility of enforcement transferred to Jus▯ce Dept.'s new Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) • Death penalty & mandatory minimal penal▯es repealed • Decisions made from health/law enforcement perspec▯ve • Established 5 schedules of controlled substances c▯ame l bo rp me t s◦ y S ◦ Drugs causing the most public concern have not been Schedule 1 drugs ◦ Many states have passed medical marijuana laws to allow for prescrip▯on by physicians ◦ Includes immediate drug precursors (raw materials) - sgurD reng i s ◦ D refers to chemicals that are close rela▯ves of controlled substances but not themselves listed on a schedule • Inexpensive screening tests invented to detect substances in urine ◦ Used by Navy & then other armed forces ◦ Private employers began tes▯ng as well ◦ 1983 Orphan Drug Act • Tax incen▯ves & exclusive sales rights for a guaranteed 7 years to any company developing a drug for rare disorders afflic▯ng 200,000 ppl or less • By 2011 over 360 drugs developed under this act received FDA approval • Limited market, many orphan drugs extremely expensive Opium • Early 1800s was medical doctors' most reliable/effec▯ve medicine & pain reliever • Prescribed liberally • 1830s - Pure morphine commercially produced from opium • 1850s -Introduc▯on of hypodermic syringe • More potent delivery method lead to increasing medical recogni▯on of nega▯ve aspects of morphinism (dependence) • By early 1900s many pa▯ents developed dependence & relied on doctors for a regular supply Patent Medicines • ^Medicines sold directly to the public under trademark names • Legal distribu▯on of patent medicines had broadest impact on drug use in the U.S. • Patent medicines dispensed by traveling peddlers & readily available at local stores for self-medica▯on • Sales increased into the million$ • Conflict increased btwn progress of medical science versus peddlers' therapeu▯c claims Opium & Chinese Immigra▯on • US imported Chinese employees a▯er the Civil War to build railroads • Immigrants brought over opium smoking habits • 1875 San Francisco passed first US law forbidding opium smoking • 1890 federal act only permi▯ed US ci▯zens to import or manufacture opium ◦ Partly in response to 1887 agreement w. China which forbade US ci▯zens from engaging in Chinese opium trade • More laws forbidding opium lead to increasing cost of black-market opium 3 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Lower-class users turned to morphine or heroine which were available & cheaper A▯er the Harrison Act • 1914 around 200,000 Americans were dependent on opioids or deriva▯ves • Early enforcement efforts focused on smugglers, yielded few arrests Cocaine • Present in many products: ◦ Coca-Cola ◦ Patent medicines • Viewed as a cause of increasing crime ◦ Role of racism Current FDA Process to authorize drugs: • Phase 1: ◦ Studies of low doses of drugs on limited #s of healthy ppl • Usually 20-80 company employees, medical school personnel, or volunteers ◦ Researchers learn how the drug is absorbed & excreted in healthy ppl ◦ Observe side effects • Phase 2: ◦ Involves pa▯ents who have the condi▯on the drug is intended to treat ◦ Involve a few hundred pa▯ents chosen to observe whether the drug helps • Phase 3: ◦ Administers drug to larger #s of individuals with the disease/symptom to be treated (1,000 - 5,000) ◦ Drug determined effec▯ve or not ◦ FDA balances benefits against dangers of the drug before releasing it for sale to the public Dietary Supplements • Supplements are treated as foods • Don't need to be proven effec▯ve for specific intended purposes • 1994 Dietary Supplement Health & Educa▯on Act ◦ Broadened defini▯on of dietary supplements to include vitamins, minerals, proteins, herbs, & herbal extracts ◦ Labels not allowed to make unsubstan▯ated direct claims ◦ Permi▯ed to make general statements about overall health & well-being achieved by consump▯on ◦ Labels must say "This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease." • Enormous growth in sales of herbal products & other dietary supplements Class Notes • Drug laws may have significant or minimal impacts on peoples' lives • Drug laws legislate behavior, morality, what is privately or publically acceptable • Laws: ◦ Regulate society to keep it stable ◦ Based on pre-determined values & norms ◦ Meant to prevent individuals from infringing on the rights of others 4 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Society's beliefs fluctuate ◦ Idea that passing laws & legisla▯ons will stop or deter ac▯vi▯es Why we try to regulate drugs: • Legi▯mate social purpose ◦ We want to protect society from the dangers of some types of drug use • Some laws are not developed as part of a ra▯onally devised plan ◦ Usually laws arise out of social/emo▯onal issues raised by grassroots organiza▯ons • I.E. Prohibi▯on = grassroots efforts raised by church women who believed we drank too much • Marijuana = racial issue, illegalized to control group of African Americans using Does drug use cause crime? Issue 1: Drug use may change a person's personality? • Li▯le empirical evidence to support this • Indicators of criminal or an▯social behavior precede drug use Issue 2: People under the influence may commit crimes • Li▯le evidence that illicit drugs cause criminal behavior • Many studies link alcohol to violent crime Issue 3: Crimes may be carried out to obtain money for drugs Issue 4: Drug use itself is a crime 2 classes of drug laws • Regula▯on of "legal" drugs ◦ Pharmaceu▯cal companies ◦ Pharmacists ◦ Physicians ◦ All others who manufacture & dispense • Criminaliza▯on of certain drugs ◦s U no i s ses s◦o P ◦ Sales • Controlled Substance Schedule ◦ Prevents research from being done on schedule 1 drugs (marijuana) Legisla▯on of Controlled Substances • Amendments to comprehensive drug abuse preven▯on & control act of 1970 • 1986: ◦ S▯ffened possession & selling penal▯es ◦ Crack vs. powder cocaine sentencing • 1988: ◦ Control of drug precursors ◦ Control of drug paraphernalia ◦ Established the Office of Na▯onal Drug Control Policy • Penal▯es from state to state: ◦ Federal law overrides state law ◦ Significant growth in # of Americans in prison ◦ Increased awareness of high incarcera▯on rate has recently led to a decline in prison popula▯on ◦ But U.S. s▯ll has greatest propor▯on of ci▯zens in prison compared to the rest of the world 5 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Impact of drug enforcement: ◦ Budget • $1 billion in 1980 • $25.6 billion in 2013 ◦ Interna▯onal programs • DEA has agents in over 40 countries • Uruguay recently legalized MJ ◦ Other federal agencies • Homeland security • Federal avia▯on administra▯on • Na▯onal park service ◦ Other costs: • Maintaining prisons & caring for prisoners • Crimes commi▯ed to purchase drugs • Corrup▯on in law enforcement • Conflic▯ng interna▯onal policy goals • Loss of individual freedom ◦ Drug use has NOT been eliminated, ppl con▯nue to seek & use drugs Harm Reduc▯on Approach • A set of prac▯cal strategies/ideas aimed at reducing nega▯ve consequences associated w. drug use • A range of public health policies designed to reduce the harmful consequences associated w. various human behaviors, legal & illegal • A movement for social jus▯ce built on a belief in & respect for the rights of ppl who use drugs 6


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