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APR 231 Chapters 2 and 3

by: Courtney Small

APR 231 Chapters 2 and 3 APR 231

Courtney Small

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About this Document

These notes cover what Professer Gonzenbach went over in Chapters 2 and 3
Intro public relations
William J. Gozenbach
Class Notes
intro, public relations
25 ?




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Small on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APR 231 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William J. Gozenbach in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Intro public relations in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
APR  231  Ch.2  -­‐The  Evolution  of  PR         Topics  to  cover   •   A  Brief  History  of  PR     •   Trends  in  Today's  Practice       Early  Beginnings     •   Rosetta  Stone  196  BC:  Ptolemy  V  Egypt     •   Julius  Caesar:  Commentaries  (like  state  of  the  union  speeches)   •   Romans:  Acta  Diurna  59  BC     •   Pope  Urban  II:  Promote  crusades  in  Middle  Ages     •   Venice:  Investors  Relations  15th,  16th  Century     •   Catholics:  Propaganda  Pope  Gregory  XV  in  17th  Century         Enlightenment:  Free  Flow  of  Ideas     •   Monarchy     •   Power  from  top  to  bottom   •   Enlightenment  philosophy  :1700s   •   Locke,  Hume,  Rousseau,  Jefferson,  Hamilton,  Madison   •   Reasonable  beings,  informed  choice   •   Free  Flow  of  information         Enlightenment:  Free  Flow  of  Ideas  (cont.)   •   Power  from  bottom  to  top   •   Info  in  a  society:  journalist     •   Representation  of  interests     •   Pluralism:  Factions  that  battle  for  objectives     •   Free  Marketplace;  Majority  Wins     •   US  is  experiment         Colonial  America     •   Virginia  Land  Co.:  Promote  land  in  Europe     •   Revolution     •   Sam  Adams:  Father  of  Press  Agentry     •   Boston  Tea  Party,  "Boston  Massacre"   o   more  of  a  media  stunt   •   Sons  of  liberty     o   People  who  spread  the  word,  exchanged  ideas     •   Correspondence  network     •   Editorials     o   Used  editorial  campaigns  to  get  the  word  out  about  the  revolution     •   Tom  Paine:  Collateral  Materials,  Common  Sense     •   Federalist  Papers:  Hamilton,  Madison,  Jay       1800's:  Golden  Age  of  Press  Agentry     •   Federalists/  Hamilton  vs  Anti-­‐Federalists/  Jefferson     o   Americas  second  revolution     o   Very  similar  to  republicans  vs.  democrats     •   Andrew  Jackson:    Amos  Kendall,  kitchen  cabinet     o   First  one  to  put  up  presidential  press  agentry     •   Publicity:  Buffalo  Bill,  Davy  Crockett,  Daniel  Boone,  Annie  Oakley   •   PT  Barnum:  Press  agent:  Tody  Hamilton  (Press  Agent),  Levi  Lyman  (Front  Man)       1800's:  Golden  Age  of  Press  Agentry  (cont.)   •   Westward  Expansion:  Railroad,  Land  Companies     •   Early  Corporate:  Ex.  Wannamaker  Dept.  Store:     Magazine,  lecture  bureau     •   Movements     o   Abolition:  Ida  Wells   o   Woman's  Suffrage:  1848  Seneca  Falls  Convention     o   Prohibition:  WCTU     o   Civil  Rights:  Ida  Wells     o   National  Parks:  John  Muir         1900-­‐1950:    Age  of  Pioneers  in  Public  Relations         Ivy  Ledbetter  Lee   •   First  PR  counsel;  Parker  and  Lee  in  1905     •   Princeton:  Enlightenment  philosophy     •   Information:  truthful,  accurate,  management  level     •   Enlighten  self-­‐interest     •   Ex.  Pennsylvania  Railroad     •   Ex.  Rockefeller,  Ludlow  Massacre         Ivy  Ledbetter  Lee:  4  Contributions     •   Business  align  with  public  interest     •   Active  support  of  top  management     •   Open  communication  with  media     •   Bring  PR  to  community  level  (employees,  customers,  neighbors)         Edward  Bernays   •   Father  of  modern  PR     •   Advocacy,  scientific  persuasion     •   Nephew  of  Sigmund  Freud     •   Engineering  of  Consent,  Crystallizing  Public  Opinion   •   Taught  first  PR  Course   •   "torches  of  liberty",  Light's  Golden  Jubilee     •   Big  Idea:  Hearty  breakfast,  doctors,  sell  bacon         World  Wars     •   WWI     •   George  Creel     •   Committee  on  public  information     •   American  Red  Cross  Development         World  Wars   •   WWII   •   Elmer  Davis     •   Office  of  war  information   •   USIA         PR  Firms   •   First  Publicity  Firm:  Publicity  Bureau  1900   •   Hill  and  Knowlton  1927   •   Byoir  and  Associates     •   Burson-­‐Marsteller:  Marketing     •   Doris  Fleischman:  First  Woman     •   Today  about  7,000  in  US         Corporate     •   GE,  GM,  AT&T     •   AT&T;s  Arthur    Page  First  VP   •   Paul  Garrett  GM       Page's  Principles     •   Tell  the  Truth     •   Prove  it  with  action     •   Listen  to  the  customer     •   Manage  for  tomorrow     •   Do  PR  as  if  whole  co.  depends  on  it     •   Remain  calm,  patient,  good-­‐humored         Industrialists,  Presidents     •   Henry  Ford:  Credit  to  those  who  do  it  first;  accessible  to  media     •   Samuel  Insull:  Chicago  Edison  Co.    President,  consumer,  magazine,  bill  stuffer     •   Teddy  Roosevelt:  Press  Conference,  conversation                   Other  PR  Leaders     •   Benjamin  Sonnenberg:  Texaco  Sponsorships     •   Rex  Harlow:  Father  of  PR  Research     •   Leone  Baxter:  1st  political  Campaign  management  firm     •   Eleanor  Lambert:  "Grande  dame"  of  fashion  PR;  Best  dressed  list     •   Moss  Kendrix:  Black  PR  pioneer,  First-­‐African  American  to  land  major  corporate  acct:   Coke   •   Dan  Edelman:  Built  largest  independent  firm;  reputation  and  brand  marketing         1950-­‐2000:  PR  Comes  of  Age         Four  Models  of  PR:  James  Grunig,  PH.D.   •   Press  Agentry/  Publicity     •   Public  Information     •   2-­‐way  Asymmetric     •   2-­‐way  Symmetric         Evolving  PR:  1950-­‐2000   •   Following  affect  expansion  of  PR     •   Post-­‐War  economy     •   Increases  in  urban  and  suburban  populations     •   Impersonal:  Big  business,  big  labor,  big  government     •   Scientific  and  technological  advances     •   Communication  Revolution  in  media     •   Bottom-­‐line  financial  considerations         PR  "Movements":  1950-­‐2000     •   1960s:  Issues  Management:  ex.  Environment     •   1970's:  Financial  Scandals:  Texas  Gulf  Sulfur     •   1980s:  Management  Function:  MBO   •   1990s:  Reputation  Management:  perception  management,  Burson-­‐Marstellar     •   2000s  on:  Relationship  Management     •   The  concept  of  dialogue  emerges  from  "relationship  management"  and  focuses  more  on   interpersonal     channels  rather  than  mass  media  distribution         Influx  of  Women  Into  PR     •   PR  from  male-­‐dominated  to  70%  female     o   Why?   •   More  flexible  work  enviornment     •   Higher  salaries  relative  to  other  fields   •   Start  firms  with  smaller  capitol     •   Listening  and  Communication  skills     •   Liberal  Arts:  promotes  writing,  presentation  skills                 Major  Trends  Today     •   Feminization     •   Multicultural  world   •   Recruitment  of  Minorities     •   Public  Demand  for  Transparency     •   Expanding  Role  of  PR     •   Corporate  Social  Responsibility  (CSR)   •   Increased  Emphasis  on  Measurement     •   Managing  24/7  News  Cycle   •   Continued  growth  of  Digital  Media     •   Outsourcing  of  PR  firms     o   Problem  for  employee  moral     •   Need  for  lifelong  learning           Chapter  3:  Ethics     Thursday,  January  21,  2016   9:23  AM   Role  of  Professional  Organizations     •   PRSA:    NY:    22,000,  110  US  chapters,  20  professional  interest  areas;  about  10%  of  PR   professionals  belong   •   Professional  development:    courses,  seminars,  webcasts   •   Publications:    Tactics  (monthly),  The  Strategist  (Quarterly)   •   Annual  meetings,  awards  (Silver,  Bronze)   •   PRSSA:    300    campuses;  10,000  members   •   Education,  produce  “Forum”  and  contests   •,       Other  Organizations     •   International  Association  of  Business  Communicators  (IABC):    San  Francisco;  14,000,  70   nations;  90%  in  US   •   International  Public  Relations  Association  (IPRA):    London,  1,000  members  in  80   countries   •   Council  for  the  Advancement  and  Support  of  Education  (CASE):    3,200  colleges  and   universities   •   National  Investors  Relations  Institute  (NIRI)   •   National  Black  PR  Society;  Hispanic  PR  Society         Employment  Categories  of  Organizations   •   (Chart)               Professional  Codes  of  Conduct:    PRSA   •   6  Core  Values  P.  79   •   Advocacy:    responsible  advocate   •   Honesty:    highest  standards  of  accuracy,  truth   •   Expertise:    Continued  development   •   Independence:    Objective,  accountable   •   Loyalty:    Faithful  to  clients,  employer   •   Fairness:    Respecting  all  opinions;  free  expression       PRSA  Provisions  of  Conduct  (P.  79)   •   Free  flow  of  information   •   Competition   •   Disclosure  of  information   •   Safeguarding  confidences   •   Conflicts  of  interest   •   Enhancing  the  profession       Codes  for  Specific  Situations   •   No  legal  authority   •   Education,  Information   •   Special  areas   o   Financial  Information:    12-­‐point  code  NIRI   o   VNR:    codes  for  video  news  releases  (NABC)   o   Internet  Transparency:    Arthur  Page  Society   o   Corporate  Practice:    Firm,  Companies:    set  codes       Make  a  profession     •   Changing  Practitioner  Mindsets   •   Standardized  Curriculum   •   Expanding  Body  of  Knowledge   •   Professional  Accreditation  and  Continuing  Education       Changing  Practitioner  Mindsets   •   See  job  as  profession;  Professional  body  of  knowledge   •   Profession  vs.  Careerist,  Technician  mentalities         Standardized  Curriculum   •   Education:    CEPR,  UA  accredited,  “one  of  top  programs  in  US”   •   Relatively  new   •   Commission  on  PR  Education   •   Curriculum:  PR  25-­‐40%  credit  hours:  principles,  case  studies,  research/evaluation,   writing/production,  planning/management,  campaigns,  supervised  internships   •   PRSSA:    Minimum  of  5  courses  for  chapter     Expanding  Body  of  Knowledge     •   Public  Relations  Review  and  Journal  of  Public  Relations  Research   •   PRWeek,   •   O’Dwyer’s  PR  Report,     •   Adweek   •   Major  Research  Centers:     •   Bama:    Plank  Center  for  Leadership  in  PR     •   USC:    Strategic  PR  Center   •   U  of  FL:    Institute  for  Public  Relations   •   Penn  St:    Arthur  Page  Center   •   UNC-­‐Char:    Center  for  Global  PR       Professional  Accreditation  and  Continuing  Education   •   PRSA  Model   •   Voluntary  certification  program,  No  licensing  like  AMA   •   PRSA’s  APR  (Accredited  in  PR)  in  1965;  revamped  in  2003   •   Preview  course;  readiness  questionnaire;  portfolio   •   2.5  hour  exam:    4-­‐step  (30%),  ethics/law  (15%),  models/theory  (15%),  business  literacy,   (10%),  management  (10%),  crisis  (10%),  media  relations  (5%),  info  tech  (2%),   history/current  issues  (2%),  and  advanced  communication  skills  (1%).   •   20%  of  membership;  about  4000   •   Recognition  of  senior  professionals:    Arthur  Page  Society   •   IABC  Model:    Written/oral  exam,  portfolio  (big  part):    ABC  (Accredited  Business   Communicator)       What  is  ethics?   •   Ethics  refers  to  the  standards  of  conduct  which  indicates  how  one  should  behave  based   upon  moral  duties  and  virtues  rising  from  principles  of  right  or  wrong   •   Values:    central  beliefs  which  determine  how  we  will  behave  in  certain  situations   •   Truth  has  small  “t”   •   Consider:    public  interest,  employer’s  self  interest,  PR  profession,  and  personal  values               Ethical  Orientations   •   Kant:  Absolutist:       •   Absolutist  Ethics:  Position  from  which  there  is  a  clear-­‐cut  right  or  wrong  response  for   every  ethical  decision   •   Prescriptive  codes:  guidelines  stipulate  specific  behaviors  to  follow   •   Proscriptive  codes:    guidelines  stress  what  should  not  be  done   •   Ex.    Two-­‐source  rule;  Chewing  tobacco  in  news  story   •   Aristotle:    Existential  (Relativistic/  Situational:    The  Golden  Mean:    midpoint  between   two  extremes;  moderation   •   Ex.    PSA:    all  facts,  boring;  all  sensational  too  extreme;  moderation   •   John  Stewart  Mill:    1863  Utilitarian  Principle  (Relativistic/Situational):    Actions  are   ethical  only  if  they  result  in  the  greatest  good  for  the  most  people   •   Ex.  Dick  Cheney  Lie  about  Troops   •   Role  Differentiation:    Job  is  to  be  advocate         Ethics  in  Individual  Practice   •   Golden  Rule:    Love  your  neighbor  as  yourself   •   Listen  to  the  “little  voice”   •   Word  is  your  bond   •   Yet  hired  professional  in  many  gray  areas       Ethical  Dealings  with  the  News  Media   •   Be  Honest:    Be  honest  with  media  to  maintain  credibility;  can’t  or  won’t  answer;  no  BS   •   Gifts  to  Journalists:    Public  relations  practitioners  should  not  undermine  the  trust  of  the   media  by  providing  junkets  of  doubtful  news  value,  extravagant  parties,  expensive  gifts,   and  personal  favors  for  media  representatives;  varies  with  media   •   Linking  Ads  to  Coverage:    Economic  pressures  are  forcing  many  publications,  particularly   specialty  magazines,  to  connect  paid  advertising  with  editorial  content,  which  is  a   concern  to  both  public  relations  personnel  and  journalists.   •   Transparency  and  Disclosure:    Pay  freelancers  to  write  stories/HealthSouth;  Paid  “shills”,   Toy  Guy,  Kathleen  Turner/Enbrel        


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