APR 231 Chapters 2 and 3
APR 231 Chapters 2 and 3 APR 231
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Small on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APR 231 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William J. Gozenbach in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Intro public relations in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
APR 231 Ch.2 -‐The Evolution of PR Topics to cover • A Brief History of PR • Trends in Today's Practice Early Beginnings • Rosetta Stone 196 BC: Ptolemy V Egypt • Julius Caesar: Commentaries (like state of the union speeches) • Romans: Acta Diurna 59 BC • Pope Urban II: Promote crusades in Middle Ages • Venice: Investors Relations 15th, 16th Century • Catholics: Propaganda Pope Gregory XV in 17th Century Enlightenment: Free Flow of Ideas • Monarchy • Power from top to bottom • Enlightenment philosophy :1700s • Locke, Hume, Rousseau, Jefferson, Hamilton, Madison • Reasonable beings, informed choice • Free Flow of information Enlightenment: Free Flow of Ideas (cont.) • Power from bottom to top • Info in a society: journalist • Representation of interests • Pluralism: Factions that battle for objectives • Free Marketplace; Majority Wins • US is experiment Colonial America • Virginia Land Co.: Promote land in Europe • Revolution • Sam Adams: Father of Press Agentry • Boston Tea Party, "Boston Massacre" o more of a media stunt • Sons of liberty o People who spread the word, exchanged ideas • Correspondence network • Editorials o Used editorial campaigns to get the word out about the revolution • Tom Paine: Collateral Materials, Common Sense • Federalist Papers: Hamilton, Madison, Jay 1800's: Golden Age of Press Agentry • Federalists/ Hamilton vs Anti-‐Federalists/ Jefferson o Americas second revolution o Very similar to republicans vs. democrats • Andrew Jackson: Amos Kendall, kitchen cabinet o First one to put up presidential press agentry • Publicity: Buffalo Bill, Davy Crockett, Daniel Boone, Annie Oakley • PT Barnum: Press agent: Tody Hamilton (Press Agent), Levi Lyman (Front Man) 1800's: Golden Age of Press Agentry (cont.) • Westward Expansion: Railroad, Land Companies • Early Corporate: Ex. Wannamaker Dept. Store: Magazine, lecture bureau • Movements o Abolition: Ida Wells o Woman's Suffrage: 1848 Seneca Falls Convention o Prohibition: WCTU o Civil Rights: Ida Wells o National Parks: John Muir 1900-‐1950: Age of Pioneers in Public Relations Ivy Ledbetter Lee • First PR counsel; Parker and Lee in 1905 • Princeton: Enlightenment philosophy • Information: truthful, accurate, management level • Enlighten self-‐interest • Ex. Pennsylvania Railroad • Ex. Rockefeller, Ludlow Massacre Ivy Ledbetter Lee: 4 Contributions • Business align with public interest • Active support of top management • Open communication with media • Bring PR to community level (employees, customers, neighbors) Edward Bernays • Father of modern PR • Advocacy, scientific persuasion • Nephew of Sigmund Freud • Engineering of Consent, Crystallizing Public Opinion • Taught first PR Course • "torches of liberty", Light's Golden Jubilee • Big Idea: Hearty breakfast, doctors, sell bacon World Wars • WWI • George Creel • Committee on public information • American Red Cross Development World Wars • WWII • Elmer Davis • Office of war information • USIA PR Firms • First Publicity Firm: Publicity Bureau 1900 • Hill and Knowlton 1927 • Byoir and Associates • Burson-‐Marsteller: Marketing • Doris Fleischman: First Woman • Today about 7,000 in US Corporate • GE, GM, AT&T • AT&T;s Arthur Page First VP • Paul Garrett GM Page's Principles • Tell the Truth • Prove it with action • Listen to the customer • Manage for tomorrow • Do PR as if whole co. depends on it • Remain calm, patient, good-‐humored Industrialists, Presidents • Henry Ford: Credit to those who do it first; accessible to media • Samuel Insull: Chicago Edison Co. President, consumer, magazine, bill stuffer • Teddy Roosevelt: Press Conference, conversation Other PR Leaders • Benjamin Sonnenberg: Texaco Sponsorships • Rex Harlow: Father of PR Research • Leone Baxter: 1st political Campaign management firm • Eleanor Lambert: "Grande dame" of fashion PR; Best dressed list • Moss Kendrix: Black PR pioneer, First-‐African American to land major corporate acct: Coke • Dan Edelman: Built largest independent firm; reputation and brand marketing 1950-‐2000: PR Comes of Age Four Models of PR: James Grunig, PH.D. • Press Agentry/ Publicity • Public Information • 2-‐way Asymmetric • 2-‐way Symmetric Evolving PR: 1950-‐2000 • Following affect expansion of PR • Post-‐War economy • Increases in urban and suburban populations • Impersonal: Big business, big labor, big government • Scientific and technological advances • Communication Revolution in media • Bottom-‐line financial considerations PR "Movements": 1950-‐2000 • 1960s: Issues Management: ex. Environment • 1970's: Financial Scandals: Texas Gulf Sulfur • 1980s: Management Function: MBO • 1990s: Reputation Management: perception management, Burson-‐Marstellar • 2000s on: Relationship Management • The concept of dialogue emerges from "relationship management" and focuses more on interpersonal channels rather than mass media distribution Influx of Women Into PR • PR from male-‐dominated to 70% female o Why? • More flexible work enviornment • Higher salaries relative to other fields • Start firms with smaller capitol • Listening and Communication skills • Liberal Arts: promotes writing, presentation skills Major Trends Today • Feminization • Multicultural world • Recruitment of Minorities • Public Demand for Transparency • Expanding Role of PR • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) • Increased Emphasis on Measurement • Managing 24/7 News Cycle • Continued growth of Digital Media • Outsourcing of PR firms o Problem for employee moral • Need for lifelong learning Chapter 3: Ethics Thursday, January 21, 2016 9:23 AM Role of Professional Organizations • PRSA: NY: 22,000, 110 US chapters, 20 professional interest areas; about 10% of PR professionals belong • Professional development: courses, seminars, webcasts • Publications: Tactics (monthly), The Strategist (Quarterly) • Annual meetings, awards (Silver, Bronze) • PRSSA: 300 campuses; 10,000 members • Education, produce “Forum” and contests • www.prsa.org, www.prssa.org Other Organizations • International Association of Business Communicators (IABC): San Francisco; 14,000, 70 nations; 90% in US • International Public Relations Association (IPRA): London, 1,000 members in 80 countries • Council for the Advancement and Support of Education (CASE): 3,200 colleges and universities • National Investors Relations Institute (NIRI) • National Black PR Society; Hispanic PR Society Employment Categories of Organizations • (Chart) Professional Codes of Conduct: PRSA • 6 Core Values P. 79 • Advocacy: responsible advocate • Honesty: highest standards of accuracy, truth • Expertise: Continued development • Independence: Objective, accountable • Loyalty: Faithful to clients, employer • Fairness: Respecting all opinions; free expression PRSA Provisions of Conduct (P. 79) • Free flow of information • Competition • Disclosure of information • Safeguarding confidences • Conflicts of interest • Enhancing the profession Codes for Specific Situations • No legal authority • Education, Information • Special areas o Financial Information: 12-‐point code NIRI o VNR: codes for video news releases (NABC) o Internet Transparency: Arthur Page Society o Corporate Practice: Firm, Companies: set codes Make a profession • Changing Practitioner Mindsets • Standardized Curriculum • Expanding Body of Knowledge • Professional Accreditation and Continuing Education Changing Practitioner Mindsets • See job as profession; Professional body of knowledge • Profession vs. Careerist, Technician mentalities Standardized Curriculum • Education: CEPR, UA accredited, “one of top programs in US” • Relatively new • Commission on PR Education • Curriculum: PR 25-‐40% credit hours: principles, case studies, research/evaluation, writing/production, planning/management, campaigns, supervised internships • PRSSA: Minimum of 5 courses for chapter Expanding Body of Knowledge • Public Relations Review and Journal of Public Relations Research • PRWeek, Ragan.com • O’Dwyer’s PR Report, • Adweek • Major Research Centers: • Bama: Plank Center for Leadership in PR • USC: Strategic PR Center • U of FL: Institute for Public Relations • Penn St: Arthur Page Center • UNC-‐Char: Center for Global PR Professional Accreditation and Continuing Education • PRSA Model • Voluntary certification program, No licensing like AMA • PRSA’s APR (Accredited in PR) in 1965; revamped in 2003 • Preview course; readiness questionnaire; portfolio • 2.5 hour exam: 4-‐step (30%), ethics/law (15%), models/theory (15%), business literacy, (10%), management (10%), crisis (10%), media relations (5%), info tech (2%), history/current issues (2%), and advanced communication skills (1%). • 20% of membership; about 4000 • Recognition of senior professionals: Arthur Page Society • IABC Model: Written/oral exam, portfolio (big part): ABC (Accredited Business Communicator) What is ethics? • Ethics refers to the standards of conduct which indicates how one should behave based upon moral duties and virtues rising from principles of right or wrong • Values: central beliefs which determine how we will behave in certain situations • Truth has small “t” • Consider: public interest, employer’s self interest, PR profession, and personal values Ethical Orientations • Kant: Absolutist: • Absolutist Ethics: Position from which there is a clear-‐cut right or wrong response for every ethical decision • Prescriptive codes: guidelines stipulate specific behaviors to follow • Proscriptive codes: guidelines stress what should not be done • Ex. Two-‐source rule; Chewing tobacco in news story • Aristotle: Existential (Relativistic/ Situational: The Golden Mean: midpoint between two extremes; moderation • Ex. PSA: all facts, boring; all sensational too extreme; moderation • John Stewart Mill: 1863 Utilitarian Principle (Relativistic/Situational): Actions are ethical only if they result in the greatest good for the most people • Ex. Dick Cheney Lie about Troops • Role Differentiation: Job is to be advocate Ethics in Individual Practice • Golden Rule: Love your neighbor as yourself • Listen to the “little voice” • Word is your bond • Yet hired professional in many gray areas Ethical Dealings with the News Media • Be Honest: Be honest with media to maintain credibility; can’t or won’t answer; no BS • Gifts to Journalists: Public relations practitioners should not undermine the trust of the media by providing junkets of doubtful news value, extravagant parties, expensive gifts, and personal favors for media representatives; varies with media • Linking Ads to Coverage: Economic pressures are forcing many publications, particularly specialty magazines, to connect paid advertising with editorial content, which is a concern to both public relations personnel and journalists. • Transparency and Disclosure: Pay freelancers to write stories/HealthSouth; Paid “shills”, Toy Guy, Kathleen Turner/Enbrel
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