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PSY 311 Chapter 1 Notes

by: Elliana

PSY 311 Chapter 1 Notes PSY 311

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Combined textbook & lecture notes covering everything in chapter 1
Ray Winters
Class Notes
Psychology, psych, PSY 311, emotion, Psychology of Emotion, PSY311
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elliana on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 311 at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 219 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
PSY 311 Emotion Chapter 1 How emotions are generated, overview, & research methods Research Methods • Self Reports - Par▯cipants' descrip▯ons of emo▯onal feelings, cogni▯ons, behaviors, & other aspects of emo▯on • Physiological Measurements - Blood pressure, heart rate, swea▯ng, brain ac▯vity, hormones, etc. • Emo▯onal condi▯ons are states of arousal • Increased ac▯va▯on of the sympathe▯c nervous system produce fight or flight emergency reac▯on • Behaviors - Ac▯ons we can observe such as facial & vocal expressions, running away, or a▯acking - y t i l i ba i l◦ R Consistency or repeatability of results - y t i d i l V Whether the scores represent what they claim to represent • Ecological Validity - The extent to which what happens in the study reflects what happens in everyday life Appraisal • How a person interprets the meaning of a situa▯on • The unconscious process in the mind that gives personal meaning to events • An emo▯on is a type of experience that results from the appraisal of an event of set of circumstances • The progress of appraisal asks: What does this event mean to me in terms of my goals & beliefs? ◦ Emo▯onal reac▯ons cannot occur unless the personal meaning of an event (appraisal) is determined • Emo▯ons are always associated with emo▯on 4 components of the emo▯on that results from appraisal: • Subjec▯ve-Experien▯al Component ◦ What a person feels (anger, sadness, etc.) • Soma▯c Component ◦ Physiological changes like heart rate, blood pressure, dila▯on of pupils, hormones, facial expressions, etc. • Cogni▯ve Component ◦ Thoughts generated by appraisal ◦ Cogni▯ve component helps to sustain an emo▯on once it is generated • Mo▯va▯onal Component ◦ Change in the person's mo▯va▯onal state / Ac▯ons you are inclined to take • I.E. Anxiety about a compe▯▯on leads to individual prac▯cing before the event Do all 4 always occur together? • No, there are diff. types of emo▯ons • Usually all 4 appear w. "blue ribbon" emo▯ons • Only mo▯va▯onal & soma▯c components for automa▯c/unconscious emo▯ons *Unconscious mo▯va▯ons drive emo▯onal behavior Theories of Emo▯on • Lazarus Model of Emo▯on ◦ Event -> Appraisal of the personal meaning of the event -> Emo▯onal reac▯on hcaorppa e ter c s◦i D in the study of emo▯ons 1 PSY 311 Emotion • Asserts that emo▯ons can be categorized • 5 basic emo▯ons: ▪ Anger - blocking or frustra▯on of a valued goal thru a perceived agent ▪ Fear/anxiety - physical or social threat to self or valued goal ▪ Disgust - elimina▯on or distancing from person, object, or idea repulsive to the self & to valued goals ▪ Happiness - successful move towards or comple▯on of a valued goal ▪ Sadness - loss or failure of a valued goal • All emo▯ons fall into 1 of these categories or result from a combina▯on of such s l as i a rppa er ◦o C - emo▯ons stated in terms of goals • James-Lange Theory ◦ Emo▯ons are labels we give to the way the body reacts to certain situa▯ons (Emo▯ons are labels for physiological responses) ◦ Cause & effect: Event -> Cogni▯on/Appraisal -> Physiological Change & Behavior -> Feeling • Dimensional Approach ◦ States that it is possible to describe emo▯onal experience in terms of a small number of dimensions (usually 2) such as arousal & pleasantness, or posi▯ve affect & nega▯ve affect ◦ Focuses on mo▯va▯onal component of emo▯on • Posi▯ve Affect/Nega▯ve Affect Model (Watson, Clark, etc.) ◦ Both broad categories^ are linked to the emo▯onal tendencies to approach incen▯ves or avoid threats • Posi▯ve Affect: Based on an individual's sensi▯vity to incen▯ve s▯muli bringing them closer to their goals. Incen▯ve s▯mulus rouses & moves an individual to ac▯on (approach awards) • Nega▯ve Affect: Reflect an individual's sensi▯vity to threat, where the mo▯va▯onal component is avoidance • Alterna▯ve Views: 1 Bipolar dimension ◦ Russell & Carroll's Circumplex model asserts that PA & NA are on one bipolar dimension & in addi▯on to valence there is a dimension of ac▯va▯on (arousal ac▯vity) • Core affect - The feeling aspect of emo▯on in terms of pleasantness & arousal • Con▯nuous Dimensions: ◦ Emo▯onal feelings are best described in terms of 2 dimensions ◦ The feeling aspect of emo▯ons is considered primary, rather than the cogni▯ve/behavioral aspects s i no▯o me f o ygo l o i b gn i y l r ednu e ◦h T represented by 2 or 3 dimensions rather than discrete categories ◦ Basic emo▯ons are psychologically & socially constructed & vary by culture • Component Process Theory ◦ A basic emo▯on reflects a compound of more elementary appraisals 2 PSY 311 Emotion 3 PSY 311 Emotion Mood & Emo▯on Affect - Mood or emo▯on Disposi▯onal Theory of Mood - A state in which a par▯cular emo▯on-related appraisal is more likely to take place • In terms of their neurobiological substrates: ◦ Mood = low intensity, long-las▯ng emo▯onal state / feeling state that you always have if you are awake ◦ Emo▯on = a reac▯on to something changing in your environment (briefer) • Emo▯ons are about change, appraisal, & reac▯on • Human beings are always in a mood state, but not necessarily always in an emo▯on state • Mood influences emo▯on by its effects on the process of appraisal Cogni▯on - Processes & informa▯on essen▯al to the representa▯on of knowledge in the mind/brain • How knowledge is constructed by the mind • How knowledge is manipulated by the mind • How knowledge is maintained by the mind • How knowledge is used in making decisions Cogni▯ve Content - Thoughts, a▯tudes, expecta▯ons, beliefs. An individual can bring the contents of cogni▯on to conscious awareness/talk about them Cogni▯ve Processes - A▯en▯on, thinking, memory storage & retrieval. Cogni▯ve processes operate at the unconscious level of awareness Appraisal is a cogni▯ve process - Appraisal & emo▯on responses generate a piece of knowledge, directs decision-making, behavior, & mo▯va▯on • The process of appraisal create knowledge Cogni▯ve Appraisal - (Schema-based) Appraisals are based on beliefs about self, world, & others (& associated goals). They require the retrieval of declara▯ve memories & emo▯onal memories • Asks: ◦ What does this mean to me in terms of my ego/my sense of worth & value? • Cogni▯ve appraisal usually has something to do with self & requires a sense of self that most non- human animals don't have • Based on implica▯onal beliefs about self, world, & others ◦ Require declara▯ve memories & emo▯onal memories • Declara▯ve/Explicit Memory - The ability to consciously recall a past experience or previously learned informa▯on ◦ Conscious recall of specific facts, events, or specific s▯muli Automa▯c Appraisals - Appraisals based on emo▯onal/associa▯ve memories, & are unrelated to beliefs • Emo▯onal Memory - A memory of the associa▯on of an event, set of circumstances, behavior or situa▯on & either reward or punishment ◦ An emo▯onal response is elicited when an emo▯onal memory is triggered by a situa▯on. It func▯ons w.o ppl being consciously aware of it • Based on emo▯onal memories, rather than one's beliefs • Do not depend on reward or punishment, more dependent on associa▯on Schemas - Implica▯onal beliefs about self, world, & others • Serve as a way to organize knowledge in the mind • Schemas (implica▯onal beliefs) are based on life experiences • Schemas are essen▯al to the appraisal process (cogni▯ve appraisal, but not automa▯c appraisal) that leads to emo▯onal reac▯ons • Every situa▯on we meet in life is constructed in terms of representa▯onal models we have of the world, about others, & of ourselves 4 PSY 311 Emotion ◦ Informa▯on reaching us thru the sense organs is selected & interpreted in terms of those schema▯c models Cogni▯ve Interpreta▯on in Cogni▯ve Appraisal • Situa▯ons are appraised in terms of the content of an individual's mind (knowledge of the world/self/ others) • An individual's knowledge, which is based on past experiences, is used to cogni▯vely interpret a situa▯on w. respect to that individual's goals • The appraisal process is always carried out w. respect to the individual's goals Implica▯onal Beliefs • O▯en called schema▯c models or schemas • Beliefs about self/world/others that operate at the implica▯onal level of meaning/knowledge • Result from life experiences • Concerned with emo▯onal consequences (reward or punishment) ◦ Implica▯onal belief b.c whether your beliefs are correct or incorrect have direct implica▯ons on your life/wellbeing • What are the implica▯ons of an event for me? How will it affect my future ac▯ons? How will my situa▯on change? • Appraisals are always made with respect to goals Homeosta▯c Principle of Schemas • The most important goal everyone has is to preserve & maintain their schemas (implica▯onal beliefs about self/word/others) ◦ Major implica▯on: The appraisal process is NEVER objec▯ve ◦ Appraisal is always biased ◦ Events not consistent w. implica▯onal beliefs are distorted & this beliefs are difficult to change in the face of contradictory evidence Appraisal-Tendency Theory • Once an emo▯on has been generated, the appraisal process becomes biased in that you are more likely to appraise events in a way that maintains that emo▯on • Similar to Disposi▯onal Theory of Mood ◦ Mood biases appraisal Proposi▯onal Beliefs • A type of knowledge (proposi▯onal level of meaning) that refers to factual informa▯on w.o personal emo▯onal content • I.E. Knowing 2 + 2 = 4 "Minuteman" Study & Emo▯onal vs. Declara▯ve Memory • Significant epilepsy - around 12 seizures a day ◦ Abla▯on surgery affected part of hippocampus • Damage to the hippocampus caused inability to form new declara▯ve memories ◦ Mee▯ng new ppl, going to a party, puzzles, etc. • Evidence that he could form & retrieve emo▯onal memories & generate an emo▯on via automa▯c appraisal ◦ Proven by physiological responses to sight of s▯muli (Stooge) associated w. punishment • Heart rate, blood pressure, swea▯ng ◦ Verbal comments & physiological response displayed emo▯onal memories were made thru automa▯c appraisal 5 PSY 311 Emotion ◦ Without any previous declara▯ve memory of actually seeing the Stooge or experiencing punishment • Results: ◦ Memories are formed in various parts of the brain, not just the hippocampus ◦ Can form new emo▯onal memories w.o being able to form new declara▯ve memories Two Memory Hypothesis • Amygdala is fully developed at birth & important to emo▯onal memories • Hippocampus is not fully developed un▯l age 3 or later, important to declara▯ve memories • Implica▯on: ◦ We form emo▯onal memories, which cannot be consciously recalled, before we develop declara▯ve memories which we can consciously recall Infant A▯achment Study • An infant and parent enter a toy filled room and the infant is allowed to play. A stranger enters the room. A▯er a couple of minutes the parent leaves the room, and then returns. Next both the stranger and mother leave the room, the stranger returns alone, and finally the parent returns. The infant’s response to all of this coming and going defines his or her a▯achment style. 3 A▯achment Styles • Secure: ◦ Protest when parent leaves ◦ Joyful when parent returns ◦ Checks-in with parent while playing, explores • Anxious-Ambivalent: ◦ Extremely upset when parent leaves ◦ Simultaneously clings to & pushes away parent upon return ◦ Parent inconsistent in mee▯ng child's needs ◦ Child less likely to explore, overly concerned w. a▯aching to parent • Avoidant: ◦ Pay li▯le a▯en▯on to parent when present ◦ Cries when parent leaves ◦ Doesn't seem contact or comfort when parent returns ◦ Lots of exploratory behavior, tho serves as escape mechanism A▯achment Styles in Adults • Secure: Trust w. healthy level of dependency • Anxious Ambivalent: Desire to merge completely w. another person, tho fears rejec▯on/abandonment or experiences jealousy • Avoidant A▯achment: Difficulty trus▯ng others, uncomfortable with closeness, difficulty depending on others Reac▯ve A▯achment Disorder • Early childhood disorder, begins @ age 5 • Disturbed/developmentally inappropriate social relatedness • Inhibited Subtype: ◦ Persistent failure to ini▯ate or respond to most social interac▯ons • Disinhibited Subtype: ◦ Shows lack of sensi▯vity in a▯achment figures 6 PSY 311 Emotion • Thought to be due to pathological child care where emo▯onal/contact/comfort needs for s▯mula▯on & affec▯on not provided by caregiver • Typically in adop▯ons from former Soviet block countries ◦ Orphanages had very high rates of infant abuse or neglect ◦ Sustained emo▯onal memories of inconsistent care & treatment 7


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