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PSY 320 Chapter 4 Notes

by: Elliana

PSY 320 Chapter 4 Notes PSY 320

Marketplace > University of Miami > Psychlogy > PSY 320 > PSY 320 Chapter 4 Notes
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About this Document

Combined textbook & lecture notes covering everything in chapter 4
Drugs & Behavior
Dr. Marc Gellman
Class Notes
Psychology, psych, PSY 320, Drugs, Drugs and Behavior, Psychology of Drugs, PSY320




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elliana on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Marc Gellman in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Drugs & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 01/23/16
PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Chapter 4 The Nervous System Homeostasis • Homeostasis: Stability in bodily func▯ons & temperature • Psychoac▯ve drugs influence homeostasis & throw off normal levels ◦ Alcohol inhibits release of an▯diure▯c hormone vasopressin & causes increase in urine excre▯on • Homeosta▯c processes mobilize to counteract effects ◦ When drinking, heavy drinkers have less urine output than infrequent drinkers ◦ During withdrawal, heavy drinkers exhibit increase in vasopressin release to retain more water Nervous System • Neurons - primary elements of the nervous system responsible for analyzing & transmi▯ng informa▯on s l l ec ev r◦e N ◦ Everything we see & understand as behavior depends on the func▯oning of neurons : s no i geR◦ 4 • Cell body - contains nucleus & sustaining substances • Dendrites - contain receptors responding to chemical signals • Axon - conducts ac▯on poten▯al • Axon terminals - contains synap▯c vesicles storing & releasing neurotransmi▯ers • Glia - provide firmness & structure to the brain, get nutrients into the system, eliminate waste, form myelin ◦ 90% of cells in the human body ◦ Helps create blood-brain barrier: protects brain from poten▯ally toxic chemicals circula▯ng in the blood • Psychoac▯ve drugs must be capable of passing thru blood-brain barrier ◦ Area Postrema - highly permeable region of BBB (regula▯on of vomi▯ng reflex) 1 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Ac▯on Poten▯al • Neurons communicate with each other to generate behavioral acts • Ac▯on poten▯al: ◦ A brief electrical signal transmi▯ed along the axon ◦ Electric signal ini▯ates chain of reac▯ons causing neurons to communicate by releasing neurotransmi▯ers ◦ Ion channels open to allow electrically charged ion par▯cles to move inside of cells -> creates Ac▯on Poten▯al ◦ Posi▯vely charges neurons, causing them to move out of res▯ng poten▯al no▯az i r a l oprep ◦ H - uneven distribu▯on of ions & opened K+ channels between neurons generate a nega▯ve res▯ng poten▯al across the membrane no▯a z i ra l op◦ D - sequen▯al opening & closing of ion channels in the neuron's membrane generates ac▯on poten▯al & ions rapidly move into the cell Neurotransmission • Electrical events within a neuron & the release of neurotransmi▯ers • Nerve impulses - electrical poten▯al changes in neurons • Propaga▯on of ac▯on poten▯als down axons 2 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Neurotransmi▯ers - signaling molecules for neuronal communica▯on ◦ Must be able to be produced & ac▯vated in the body • "Lock & Key" theory: ◦ Neurotransmi▯ers have very specific structures (keys) ◦ Fit into receptor structures with the accommoda▯ng shape (locks) ◦ Correctly fi▯ng neurotransmi▯ers enter matching receptors & "unlock" or turn on ac▯vity • Life Cycle of a neurotransmi▯er: ◦ Neurotransmi▯er precursors found floa▯ng in blood supply ◦ Uptake - selected precursors taken up by cells ◦ Synthesis - precursors synthesized into neurotransmi▯ers thru enzyme ac▯ons ◦ Storage - neurotransmi▯ers stored in small vesicles ◦ Release - ac▯on poten▯al arrives & neurotransmi▯ers are released into the synapse ◦ Binding - released neurotransmi▯ers bind w. receptors, may have excitatory or inhibitory effects ◦ Metabolism - once the signal's been sent, neurotransmi▯ers are removed from the synapse & may return or be metabolized Nervous Systems • Soma▯c system - nerve cells working as the "front lines" for interac▯ng with the external environment ◦ Carries sensory info into the CNS ◦ Sends motor informa▯on back out ◦ Voluntary ac▯ons • Acetylcholine - Neurotransmi▯er at neuromuscular junc▯ons / acts on receptors that excite the muscles Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) • Monitors & controls body's internal environment • Regulates involuntary body func▯ons (heart rate, blood pressure, etc.) • ANS divided into sympathe▯c & parasympathe▯c branches • Parasympathe▯c: ◦ Acetylcholine 3 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Involved in decreased HR • Sympathe▯c: en i rh pen i pe r ◦o N • Chemically resembled by amphetamines ◦ Ac▯vates "fight or flight" response ◦ Sympathomime▯c drugs ac▯vate the sympathe▯c branch Central Nervous System (CNS) • Consists of brain & spinal cord • Formed by central mass of nervous ▯ssue w. sensory nerves coming in & motor nerves coming out • Integrates most informa▯on, learning, memory, & coordina▯on of ac▯vity Brain • Major structures: ◦ Cerebral cortex • Frontal - motor cortex • Parietal - somatosensory • Occipital - visual • Temporal - auditory ◦ Basal ganglia ◦ Amygdala ◦ Hypothalamus ◦ Hippocampus • Highest # of cannabinoid receptors • Neurotransmi▯ers affected by psychoac▯ve drugs: ◦ Dopamine • Over-ac▯va▯on: Schizophrenia, hallucina▯ons • Component of the "rewarding" proper▯es of drugs • Loss of dopamine Parkinsons • Mediates some psycho▯c behavior ◦ Acetylcholine • Damage: Alzheimer's disease • Involved in learning & memory en i rh pen i pe r ◦o N • S▯mula▯on: Arousal, wakefulness • Regulates arousal & a▯en▯veness • Plays role in ini▯a▯on of food intake (appe▯te) ◦ Serotonin (5HT) • Role in impulsivity, aggression, depression, sleep, control of food & alcohol intake • Serotonin pathways influenced by: hallucinogens, LSD, an▯-depressants, SSRIs, Prozac A◦A G • Inhibi▯on: Seda▯on, seizures • Inhibitory neurotransmi▯er • CNS depressant drugs, such as alcohol & an▯-anxiety agents ◦ Glutamate • S▯mula▯on: Excites neurons • Excitatory neurotransmi▯er • Over-ac▯va▯on: seizures sn i hprod ◦n E 4 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Found thru-out the brain • Naturally occurring opioid-like chemicals • Role in pain relief & other func▯ons Blood Flow in the Brain • Proper blood flow necessary for func▯on • Nitric oxide - dilates blood capillaries to help deliver more oxygen • fMRI monitors oxygen uptake in brain • Ischemia - too li▯le cerebral blood flow ◦ May cause cell death • Hyperemia - excess cerebral blood flow ◦ May cause damage Drugs on the Brain • Blood supply carries blood to the brain, then disperses chemicals in equilibrium across brain & blood • As the body excretes drugs from the blood, molecules leave the brain & decrease levels • Drugs usually have a similar molecular structure to one of the neurotransmi▯er chemicals ◦ Drug molecules thus interact with 1 or more of the stages in the life cycle of the neurotransmi▯er chemical • Processing drugs: ◦ Synthesis - Neurons uptake precursor molecules & chemically react to generate it into the neurotransmi▯er molecule ◦ Synthesis reac▯ons are helped along by enzymes ◦ Ac▯on poten▯al opens neurons & allows newly synthesized neurotransmi▯ers to be sent around Drug Effects on Neurotransmission • Drugs selec▯vely block neural/ion channels • Prevents ac▯on poten▯al & disrupts communica▯on between neurons • Selec▯ve blockade of channels reduces pain by drugs such as cocaine & anesthe▯cs • The same neurotransmi▯er can have different effects depending upon the receptor being ac▯vated Drug Ac▯ons • Drugs alter the availability of the neurotransmi▯er in the synapse thru ac▯ons on synthesis, storage, release, reuptake, or metabolism • Transporter interference: ◦ Dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin ◦ Cocaine, an▯depressant drugs ◦ Block transporters & cause neurotransmi▯ers to remain in synapses longer than usual • Directly on the receptor: ◦ Agonist - mimics the ac▯on of the neurotransmi▯er & directly ac▯vates the receptor or increases effects ◦ Antagonist - Occupies the receptor & prevents the neurotransmi▯er from ac▯va▯ng / blocks/ takes away from effects of the neurotransmi▯er ◦ Affinity - ability of a drug to bind a receptor ◦ Efficacy - the degree to which the drug ac▯vates the receptor once bound ◦ Heroin (opioid agonist) ◦ Naloxone (opioid antagonist) • No single biochemical theory of mood or drug dependence has achieved sufficient experimental support 5 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Brain Imaging Techniques • MRI (Magne▯c Resonance Imaging) ◦ Uses magnets to determine amt of hydrogen atoms @ different loca▯ons in the body ◦ Gives detailed view of the brain structure ◦ Produces high resolu▯on images ◦ Doesn't depict brain ac▯vity • PET (Positron-Emission Tomography) ◦ Radioac▯vely labeled chemical is injected into bloodstream & then scanning device maps out traces in various brain regions ◦ Radioac▯ve glucose chemicals accumulate in the most ac▯ve brain areas ◦ Produces colored sta▯s▯cal map indica▯ng ac▯ve brain parts ◦ Ac▯ve regions vary depending on what the pa▯ent is doing ◦ Provides direct measure of brain ac▯vity & indirect measure of poten▯al toxicity to specific neurons ◦ Does not provide info about brain structures sno▯ce j n i se r i uq ◦ R • fMRI ◦ Newest & possibly most powerful tool ◦ Provides real-▯me info about changes in brain blood flow during ac▯vi▯es ◦ Measures the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal • Can then be used to create a colored sta▯s▯cal map of brain regions ac▯ve during task ac▯vity ◦ Provide indirect measure of neuron ac▯vity in specific brain regions ◦ Non-invasive, does not require injec▯on ◦ Does not provide anatomical info • Drawbacks of brain imaging: ◦ Requires complicated sta▯s▯cal analysis • O▯en not standardized btwn hospitals & laboratories ◦ Color-coding may be arbitrary 6


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