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Religion: Judaism & Christianity

by: Rebecca Notetaker

Religion: Judaism & Christianity Relg 102 001

Marketplace > West Virginia University > Religious Studies > Relg 102 001 > Religion Judaism Christianity
Rebecca Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover information from Judaism and Christianity
Introduction world religions
Alyssa Beall
Class Notes
religion, world




Popular in Introduction world religions

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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Notetaker on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Relg 102 001 at West Virginia University taught by Alyssa Beall in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction world religions in Religious Studies at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
From Judaism to Christianity: ideas of the Messiah  Messiah?  ­ “anointed one” ­ In judaism: bringing a reign of peace  ­ “messianic age”: time of corruption and violence  ­ apocalyptic  Dead Sea Sect  ­ “Eschatological” — end times (eschaton)  ­ Believed final battle was coming ­ Living in State of preparedness and purity  ­ waiting for “Teacher of Righteousness” Historical Events  ­ Dead Sea Scrolls: 150 BCE ­ 70 CE ­ ~ 4 BCE to ~33 CE — life of Jesus  ­ (calendar: est. 525 CE) ­ 66 CE: First jewish Revolt ­ 70 CE: destruction of Temple  ­ Masada 73 CE ­ 132 CE: Second Jewish Revolt  Sources of Knowledge: Jesus  ­ The Gospels ­ Mark (70CE) ­ Matthew (80­90CE) ­ Luke (80­90CE) ­ John (90­110CE) ­ accepted as cannon ca. 180CE ­ Irenaeus  ­ (full NT canon ca. 360CE ­ Athanasius) Other Sources  ­ non­canonical gospels (everything else!) ­ lost? ­ Josephus (b. 37 CE), Antiquities ca 93CE  ­ Certainly more sources on Christians! Gnostic Gospels  ­ Nag Hammadi: 1945 ­ different vies of Jesus  ­ Christianties? Was Jesus an Essene? ­ Scrolls date range: 150 BCE­ 70CE ­ Similar eschatological vies: Kingdom of God ­ Evidence of Essences outside of Qumran? ­ Jesus’ childhood: one story (Luke 2:39)  and if not… (an essene) ­ Jesus Movement follows along similar lines ­ Secretariat community ­ issues with primary jewish society ­ “letter of Law” ­ Temple First SOurces: Jesus Movement  ­Paul of Tasus ­lived ca. 5­67 CE ­begins (as “saul”) as a persecutor of christians ­writes epistles: letter to small communitired  13 epistles included in NT canon (ca. 367) study guide  Jesus Movement :  ­homeland ­jewish sect  ­zealots  ­paul spreads “xty” ­romans! 70 CE  ­sacking jerusalem  Early Church  ­Q? (saying gospel)      ­ ­ synoptic gospels: Matt, Mark, Luke  ­ meeting houses, urban centers ­ paul d. ­ 65  ­ Gos. John ­ 100: theological ­ movement away from judaism  fish = IXOYE = first letters of “Jesus­christ God ­ son ­ savior”  Growth of the Church  ­ Gnostics (Valentinius) ­ period of persecution peaks — 3rd C. ­ (Perpetua: 203; Great Persecution 303)  ­ legalization: Edict of Constantine 313 ­ official religion: Theodosius  ­ “empire­wide structure” Structure & Leaders  ­ bishops: (eventually) from aristocratic families  ­ bishops of Rome = “popes” ­ Roman Policy: Peter’s successors should lead the church  ­ catholic: universal ­ creed: authoritative & uniform statement of belief Constantine  ­ Constantinople on site of Byzantium  ­ “Byzantine empire” ­ 325: First Council of Nicaea ­ Nicene Creed: Jesus and God are same substance  ­ vs. Arianism: Jesus created by God ­ Ongoing debates! “Heresies” ­ Heterodox movements ­ Aries (­250 ­ 366): strict monotheism; God = Jesus not consubstantial ­ Monophysites: Jesus was fully divine  ­ list of heresies  Rome  ­ St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican Hill ­ burial site of the apostle Peter (necropolis) ­ Funded by Constantine, built 319­333 CE ­ (410: Rome sacked by the visigoths) ­ Popes will become leaders of the “new” empire Church and State  ­ Roman emperors prone to meddling ­ selection of bishops ­ “doctrinal quarrels” between Xn groups ­ (this isn't going to end….) ­ other Xns withdrawing from daily life  Monasticism  ­ Post ­ 313  ­ ascetics  ­ “living alone, together” Teachings ­ Transubstantiation (date?)  ­ change in substance  ­ during the mass where you are eating bread and drinking wine to represent the last  super (sensual rules representing christianity) ­ at some point in the ceremony the bread and the wine transform into the actual body of  jesus christ  ­ The Trinity: Father, Son, Holy Spirit (Terrullian, 3rd C.) Orthodoxy  ­ In Constantinople: Patriarch (vs. Pope)  ­ Reading the Bible & Understanding Traditions? ­ 1054 ­ Great Schism  ­ from 400 —> 1000 Roman empire has been collapsing in the West  ­ western religion forms into a  government, economy, almost country  Schism  ­ Papal Supremacy? ­ Western (LAtin) customs rejected ­ Land Disputes ­ Celibacy Western Church in Decline ­ Height of Power from 800s­1200s ­ 1300s: period of heresy and schism  ­ 130901377: Avignon is seat of papacy  The Western Schism  ­ Pope Gregory XI, d. 1378 ­ election of New Pope connected ­ French cardinals return to Avignon ­ Western Christendom divided Reformation: Background  ­ Western Schism (ends 1417) ­ ca. 1440: invention of the printing press ­ corrupt Church ­ English & French Churches relatively independent from Rome  ­ GermanyL not independently controlled ­ taxation by church Martin Luther (1483­1546) ­ Sale of Indulgences ­ 95 Theses (1517) challenge: ­ confession & Penance; ­ authority of pope ­ excommunicated 1520 Counter­Reformation ­ Response of the Roman Catholic Church  ­ Limits Protestant gains to N. Europe  ­ Focus on reforms; affirms practices 


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