WEEK 2 NOTES
WEEK 2 NOTES HIST 2112 B
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashika Ganesh on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 B at Georgia Institute of Technology taught by hild in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see United States since 1877 in History at Georgia Institute of Technology.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Corruption in the grant administration Credit mobile scandal o Vp of US and dozen republicans in congress o Democrat party is stronger in the south St Louis whiskey ring Election of 1876 o most controversial election o 22 ndamendment 1951 – ratified 2 terms only for president o grant saved country from civil war wanted 3 term republicans did not re-nominate grant compromise of 1877 o a bipartisan commission gave all 20 disputed electoral votes to Hayes promised secretly to remove all federal troops from the south o Result: the end of reconstruction The legacy of reconstruction o An “unfinished revolution” o Slavery was abolished Thus not a total failure o But civil rights for African Americans would remain contested for the next century (esp. in the south) Civil rights movement of 50-60s’ is second reconstruction =================================== ===END OF CHAP 17 CHAPTER 18 BIG BUSINESS AND ORGANIZED LABOR IN THE GILDED AGE Corporate era we live in today started in gilded age Organized labor still exists today 1870 – 90’s Sketch is from harper weekly magazine o Violence during great railroad strike Pittsburgh o First major nationwide strike in history Technological breakthroughs o rise of manufacturing/big business o transportation steamships canals RRs Stevens institute of technology o Communication Telegraph Samuel morse Telephone Speed of communication is the speed of travel o Improved industrial processes Henry ford Andrew Carnegie – investment in steel 2 o Use of electric power Dynamo – make electricity Could produce fires Emergence of mass retailers, 1870 o Buying things normally: general store “soup to nuts” o Mail order houses Catalogs are mailed out Rural areas – now they can buy things they couldn’t have bought before Sears started catalogs o Chain stores: A&P grocery, woolworth’s (Walmart knockoff) – five and dime store Homogenize American culture Mass production being sold nation wide o Department store Macy’s Buildings 3 to 4 stories Birth of advertising o FW Ayer of NY founded the first American advertising agency in the US in 1869 o Addison avenue Coca cola advertisement o 20-30 soft drinks o put their revenues in national advertising campaigns rise of mass consumption 3 o gross retail revenues in the US rose from 8 million in 1860 to 102 million in 1900 o hand held cameras o layover bags (pay little by little) railroads and laissez faire o laissez faire government interference in businesses o RR industry was the first to receive significant federal aid o Several Midwestern states passed RR regulatory laws in the mid 1870s known as the granger laws State has Max amount RR companies can charge Example) If farmers are ripped off, then everyone else is ripped off The supreme court and railroad regulation o Munn v Illinois 1877 – supreme court upheld the granger laws states won o Wabash v Illinois Supreme court reversed itself and declared that only the federal government could regulate interstate commerce – therefore the granger laws were struck down RR companies’ won o All states that had granger laws and RR regulatory laws became invalid 4 o RR companies are interstate businesses o State gov cannot regular interstate businesses Only federal gov can do that o Farmers have to start all over again Federal regulatory legislation o Interstate commerce act ICC o Sherman antitrust act Teddy Roosevelt The robber barons o Andrew Carnegie Native of scotland Works in PA Works in a mill as a telegraph boy Carnegie steel o Jd Rockefeller Standard oil Vertical integration Cut out all middle men Little involvement of outsiders as possible Horizontal integration o Jp morgan Investment banking Labor organizations o Unions o Knights of labor 5 Declines in 1890s Anyone who is a producer(provided good or service) Open to men women skilled unskilled. All races except Chinese Chinese immigrants o American federation of labor Federation of skilled trade/craft unions o Industrial workers of the world One big union Destroyed by gov oppression during WW1 Great RR strike o Triggered by wage cuts o Spread across nation o State governers sent militia to break the strike in some states o Pres hayes sent federal troops to Baltimore o Strike was crushed and 100 people killed Strikers and troops in Maryland Haymarket riot o Deadly confrontation between police and labor demonstrators in Chicago’s haymarket square At least 11 killed Homestead strike o Strike at Carnegie steel’s homestead steel mill near Pittsburgh Pinkertons – own army 6 Henry clay frick Strikers resisted companys use of armed strikebreakers Governer of PA then sent the state militia to break the strike Pullman strike 7 Pullman Strike 1894 o Began when workers truck over wage cuts at the Pullman palace car co. near Chicago o The American railway union then called a national sympathy strike of railroad workers o Railroad companies start booking mail cars to back of trains o Pres Cleveland sent troops to the Chicago area to break the strike o Strike leader Eugene debs was arrested for failing to obey an injunction ordering an end to the strike Debs became a socialist o State or federal troops ending strikes usually Harper weekly sketch of troops coming into Chicago breaking up the strike Robber barons -------------------chapter 19 -------------------------- THE NEW SOUTH AND THE NEW WEST States below the red line o States that succeeded The reason the blue states are just territories o No way for Americans in east to be out there because no train lines went there o California had a gold outbreak so no one wanted to go back out east o Steam ship tickets Henry Grady and the new south creed o Was a newspaper editor o Editor of the Atlanta constitution The new south creed emphasized o Southern industrialization Fewer factories in old south than north South lost civil war North had more man and industrial power o Diversification of agriculture All planters engaged in monocrop/hashcrop agriculture 90% of acres would be one crop men were farming cotton for civil war o peaceful race relationship Late nineteenth century southern industries o Cotton mills o Coal mining o Tobacco manufacturing o Iron and steel Postbellum southern farmers o Planters: farmers with large populations o Small landowners o Tenant farmers o Sharecroppers o Day laborers Bourbans/redeemers (equal) o Democrats who took control of southern politics and government after reconstruction The rise of jim crow o The term jim crow originated with a black face character in minstrel shows but came to refer to the system of legalized segregation Disfranchment Williams v Mississippi Ida b wells Booker t Washington WEB dubois
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