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PSYCH 3060: Week 4 Notes

by: Sarah Notetaker

PSYCH 3060: Week 4 Notes Psychology 3060

Marketplace > Clemson University > Psychlogy > Psychology 3060 > PSYCH 3060 Week 4 Notes
Sarah Notetaker
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About this Document

Notes from Tuesday (1/19/16-1/21/16) on female anatomy and the beginning of Chapter 3 Hormones (1/21/16).
Human Sexual Behavior
Dr. King
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Notetaker on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 3060 at Clemson University taught by Dr. King in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 01/23/16
1/19/16­1/21/16 Female Anatomy: External o Vulvu  Another term for the entire female genitalia   Consists of the mons veneris, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and urethral opening  o Mons veneris   Layer of fatty tissue over the pubic bone area o Labia majora   Two folds of skin that extend from the mons veneris to the perineum  o Labia minora   Located between the labia majora, meeting above the clitoris  Forms clitoral hood o Urethral opening   Located beneath clitoris and above vaginal opening  o Vaginal opening  Hole that leads into the vagina o Hymen   Membrane partially closing off the opening of the vagina   Breaks during the first time of having sex  o Vestibular area  Area between urethral opening and vaginal opening o Perineum   Entire pelvic floor   Most often used to refer to the hairless spot of skin separating the vagina and the anus  Perineal tears can occur during childbirth. A first degree tear is when only the skin tears, and second­degree tears are when the vaginal muscle and skin tear o Bartholin’s glands  Glands located at the bottom of labia minora   Contribute to alkaline fluid inside vagina during sexual arousal o Clitoris   Consists of thousands of nerve endings   Develops from the same embryonic tissue as the penis  Glans: only visible portion of clitoris  Shaft (body): located beneath clitoral hood; app. 1 inch long & one­quarter inch in diameter  Contains   spongy   tissue  corpora   cavernosa:  two   parallel cylinders that form the crura  Crura: spreads out and attaches to pubic bone  When sexually aroused, the spongy tissue becomes engorged with blood 1/19/16­1/21/16  Vaginal Opening o Contains a lot of nerve endings, so it is very sensitive o Bulbocavernosus muscle: ring of sphincter muscles   A sphincter is a cylindrical muscle; contracts and relaxes to control bodily functions   If the woman is nervous or uncomfortable, these muscles constrict, making intercourse difficult o  Vestibular bulbs  located underneath sphincter muscles on both sides of vaginal opening  swells with blood during sexual intercourse o Hymen  Flap of skin partially covering vaginal opening  Only found in female humans  Oftentimes   broken   during   the   first   time   having   sexual intercourse, however, sometimes the hymen can be broken during the insertion of a tampon  Breasts  o Develop during puberty – a result of an increase in the hormone estrogen  o Known as a “secondary sex characteristic” because they are caused by hormones created by the ovaries  o 15­20 mammary glands (produce milk) o Nipple: separate duct connects each gland to the nipple  Made of smooth muscle fibers and nerve fibers  o Areola  Darkened area around nipple  Darkens even more during pregnancy   Smalls bumps on areola secrete oil to keep nipples lubricated during breast­feeding o Vary in size – depends on the amount of fatty tissue of each individual  o Process of milk production  Hormone called prolactin from the pituitary gland (located at the base of brain)  causes mammary glands to produce milk  sucking on the nipples causes pituitary glands to produce hormone oxytocin  results in ejection of milk o Breast augmentation  Exercises that supposedly increase breast size do not work o Breast implants  Began in the 1960’s  Silicone is inserted beneath fatty tissue of breasts 1/19/16­1/21/16  15%   of   women   who   receive   implants   experience   fibrous capsule forms around the implant this is the body rejecting the implants, causing scar tissue to form around implants Surgery is required, and in order to remove the scar tissue, healthy tissue must be removed as well  Internal Female Anatomy o The vagina   Internal structure located behind bladder and in front of rectum  If the woman is not aroused, the vagina walls are “collapsed; when aroused the vagina walls open  Vagina wall is a soft mucosal surface (similar to the inside of a mouth)   Natural lubrication Caused by the walls filling with blood  the pressure causes the mucosal lining to secrete the fluid   The vaginal wall connects to the cervix  The cervix consists of a) endocervix: lining of the cervix, and b) endocervical canal: the canal of the cervix  The cervix leads to the uterus  Fertilized eggs attach to the inside and become an embryo  The organ where offspring are conceived  3 layers: a) the  innermost  being the endometrium (fertilized eggs implants) b) strong middle layer called myometrium   which   contracts   during   labor   and   c) external layer (perimetrium)  Breaking off on either side of the reproductive system are two fallopian tubes  Transport eggs from the ovaries to the uterus   Connected to the end of the fallopian tubes are fimbria Resemble a fringe  Series of threads   Ovaries Attached to the fimbria  Eggs are produced within the ovaries  Female gonads – develop from the same embryonic tissue as male gonads the testicles  Produce hormones estrogen and progesterone  Contain 300,000­400,000 eggs at birth  1/19/16­1/21/16 o Each egg is surrounded by a capsule called a primary follicle o One or more follicle is stimulated to mature once a month o If the follicle is conceived, it is called a Graafian follicle  o This process ends at menopause  o Vaginal health   The vagina is a self­cleansing organ Walls of vagina secrete fluids to maintain a proper acidic environment  This means that cleaning with soap or other hygienic products can be harmful rather than useful  o The   use   of   these   products   destabilize   the bacteria,   causing   potential   infections   or discomfort   Douching, the process of cleaning the inside of the vagina, increases   the   risk   of   bacterial   vaginosis   and   ectopic pregnancies (when the child develops in the fallopian tube rather than the uterus)  Kegel exercises  Strengthens   the   pubococcygeus   muscle   (PC)   by contracting and releasing the muscle  Cultural perspectives  o Clitoridectomy: removal of the clitoris   During   the   Victorian   era,   the   United   States   and   Europe preformed surgery known as  Remains   popular   in   other   parts   of   the   world,   especially Northern Africa and the Middle East o Virginity   The hymen has been used to ensure that a woman was a virgin before marriage   During biblical Hebrew times, if a woman didn’t bleed during her first time having sex, she was at risk of being stoned to death because sex out of marriage was strongly looked down upon  Many Muslims, Chinese, and Moroccans display a blood­ stained sheet on the night of a wedding as proof of the brides chastity.  1/19/16­1/21/16  In some cultures, girls hymens are broken by horns or stone phalluses (stones structured as penises)   There is no certainty that a woman will bleed when her hymen is   broken,   but   unfortunately,   many   women   have   been scrutinized or sometimes even killed, for not bleeding.  o Breasts  In Western society, breasts have become overly sexualized   In many cultures however, the breast is not seen as sexual, rather, it is seen as something that provides food for children (which obviously is the purpose) 1/21/16 Hormones: chemical substances secreted into bloodstream, effecting other glands  and organs   Endocrine System: network of ductless glands o Unlike other glands, such as sweat glands and saliva glands,  endocrine glands produce hormones   The testicles create testosterone, and a small amount of  estrogen  The ovaries create estrogen and progesterone, as well as a  small amount of testosterone  o The pituitary gland (located at the base of the brain) causes  testicles and ovaries to produce hormones  Releases 8 different hormones into bloodstream  2  gstadotropins effect the ovaries and testicles  1  gonadotropic: Follicle­stimulating hormone (FHS)  stimulates maturation of a follicle in women (immature  egg) and stimulates production of sperm in men  2  gonadotropic: luteinizing hormone (LH) – causes  ovulation (release of egg) in women and stimulates testicles to produce male hormones  Menstrual Cycle: monthly cycle of hormonal events in women o During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium of the uterus thickens and fills with blood to prepare for fertilization   If the egg is not fertilized, it is discharged from the body   Accompanied by bleeding  o Average length of menstrual cycle 28 days   The first day is often considered to when a woman starts  bleeding  Menstruation is actually the last phase of the  menstrual cycle o Preovulatory phase  Growing follicle secretes increased levels of  estrogen  then carried through bloodstream back to pituitary gland  releases more FHS  releases  surge of LH, promoting growth of endometrium  o Ovulation (app. Day 14)   Within 12­24 hours of the surge of LH, the follicle ruptures and the egg (ovum) travels to the abdominal cavity   1/21/16  The cells that made the follicle remain in the ovary, now  called the corpus luteum,   Hormonal changes alters cervical mucus   Egg is only ripe for 24 hours of ovulation, and sperm can  live in fallopian tubes up to 5 days  o Posovulatory phase (days 15­28)  Referred to as the luteal or secretory phase  Large levels of estrogen and progesterone are released   Progesterone inhibits the pituitary gland from releasing  more LH  Endometrium develops small blood vessels and secrete  nourishing substances   Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) ensures corpus  luteum will continued secreting estrogen and progesterone  o Menstruation (days 1­4)   Decline of estrogen and progesterone  Endometrium sloughed off and shed over 3­6 days   Discharge of blood, cervical mucus, and endometrial tissue


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