PSYCH 3060: Week 4 Notes
PSYCH 3060: Week 4 Notes Psychology 3060
Popular in Human Sexual Behavior
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Notetaker on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 3060 at Clemson University taught by Dr. King in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
Reviews for PSYCH 3060: Week 4 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/23/16
1/19/161/21/16 Female Anatomy: External o Vulvu Another term for the entire female genitalia Consists of the mons veneris, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and urethral opening o Mons veneris Layer of fatty tissue over the pubic bone area o Labia majora Two folds of skin that extend from the mons veneris to the perineum o Labia minora Located between the labia majora, meeting above the clitoris Forms clitoral hood o Urethral opening Located beneath clitoris and above vaginal opening o Vaginal opening Hole that leads into the vagina o Hymen Membrane partially closing off the opening of the vagina Breaks during the first time of having sex o Vestibular area Area between urethral opening and vaginal opening o Perineum Entire pelvic floor Most often used to refer to the hairless spot of skin separating the vagina and the anus Perineal tears can occur during childbirth. A first degree tear is when only the skin tears, and seconddegree tears are when the vaginal muscle and skin tear o Bartholin’s glands Glands located at the bottom of labia minora Contribute to alkaline fluid inside vagina during sexual arousal o Clitoris Consists of thousands of nerve endings Develops from the same embryonic tissue as the penis Glans: only visible portion of clitoris Shaft (body): located beneath clitoral hood; app. 1 inch long & onequarter inch in diameter Contains spongy tissue corpora cavernosa: two parallel cylinders that form the crura Crura: spreads out and attaches to pubic bone When sexually aroused, the spongy tissue becomes engorged with blood 1/19/161/21/16 Vaginal Opening o Contains a lot of nerve endings, so it is very sensitive o Bulbocavernosus muscle: ring of sphincter muscles A sphincter is a cylindrical muscle; contracts and relaxes to control bodily functions If the woman is nervous or uncomfortable, these muscles constrict, making intercourse difficult o Vestibular bulbs located underneath sphincter muscles on both sides of vaginal opening swells with blood during sexual intercourse o Hymen Flap of skin partially covering vaginal opening Only found in female humans Oftentimes broken during the first time having sexual intercourse, however, sometimes the hymen can be broken during the insertion of a tampon Breasts o Develop during puberty – a result of an increase in the hormone estrogen o Known as a “secondary sex characteristic” because they are caused by hormones created by the ovaries o 1520 mammary glands (produce milk) o Nipple: separate duct connects each gland to the nipple Made of smooth muscle fibers and nerve fibers o Areola Darkened area around nipple Darkens even more during pregnancy Smalls bumps on areola secrete oil to keep nipples lubricated during breastfeeding o Vary in size – depends on the amount of fatty tissue of each individual o Process of milk production Hormone called prolactin from the pituitary gland (located at the base of brain) causes mammary glands to produce milk sucking on the nipples causes pituitary glands to produce hormone oxytocin results in ejection of milk o Breast augmentation Exercises that supposedly increase breast size do not work o Breast implants Began in the 1960’s Silicone is inserted beneath fatty tissue of breasts 1/19/161/21/16 15% of women who receive implants experience fibrous capsule forms around the implant this is the body rejecting the implants, causing scar tissue to form around implants Surgery is required, and in order to remove the scar tissue, healthy tissue must be removed as well Internal Female Anatomy o The vagina Internal structure located behind bladder and in front of rectum If the woman is not aroused, the vagina walls are “collapsed; when aroused the vagina walls open Vagina wall is a soft mucosal surface (similar to the inside of a mouth) Natural lubrication Caused by the walls filling with blood the pressure causes the mucosal lining to secrete the fluid The vaginal wall connects to the cervix The cervix consists of a) endocervix: lining of the cervix, and b) endocervical canal: the canal of the cervix The cervix leads to the uterus Fertilized eggs attach to the inside and become an embryo The organ where offspring are conceived 3 layers: a) the innermost being the endometrium (fertilized eggs implants) b) strong middle layer called myometrium which contracts during labor and c) external layer (perimetrium) Breaking off on either side of the reproductive system are two fallopian tubes Transport eggs from the ovaries to the uterus Connected to the end of the fallopian tubes are fimbria Resemble a fringe Series of threads Ovaries Attached to the fimbria Eggs are produced within the ovaries Female gonads – develop from the same embryonic tissue as male gonads the testicles Produce hormones estrogen and progesterone Contain 300,000400,000 eggs at birth 1/19/161/21/16 o Each egg is surrounded by a capsule called a primary follicle o One or more follicle is stimulated to mature once a month o If the follicle is conceived, it is called a Graafian follicle o This process ends at menopause o Vaginal health The vagina is a selfcleansing organ Walls of vagina secrete fluids to maintain a proper acidic environment This means that cleaning with soap or other hygienic products can be harmful rather than useful o The use of these products destabilize the bacteria, causing potential infections or discomfort Douching, the process of cleaning the inside of the vagina, increases the risk of bacterial vaginosis and ectopic pregnancies (when the child develops in the fallopian tube rather than the uterus) Kegel exercises Strengthens the pubococcygeus muscle (PC) by contracting and releasing the muscle Cultural perspectives o Clitoridectomy: removal of the clitoris During the Victorian era, the United States and Europe preformed surgery known as Remains popular in other parts of the world, especially Northern Africa and the Middle East o Virginity The hymen has been used to ensure that a woman was a virgin before marriage During biblical Hebrew times, if a woman didn’t bleed during her first time having sex, she was at risk of being stoned to death because sex out of marriage was strongly looked down upon Many Muslims, Chinese, and Moroccans display a blood stained sheet on the night of a wedding as proof of the brides chastity. 1/19/161/21/16 In some cultures, girls hymens are broken by horns or stone phalluses (stones structured as penises) There is no certainty that a woman will bleed when her hymen is broken, but unfortunately, many women have been scrutinized or sometimes even killed, for not bleeding. o Breasts In Western society, breasts have become overly sexualized In many cultures however, the breast is not seen as sexual, rather, it is seen as something that provides food for children (which obviously is the purpose) 1/21/16 Hormones: chemical substances secreted into bloodstream, effecting other glands and organs Endocrine System: network of ductless glands o Unlike other glands, such as sweat glands and saliva glands, endocrine glands produce hormones The testicles create testosterone, and a small amount of estrogen The ovaries create estrogen and progesterone, as well as a small amount of testosterone o The pituitary gland (located at the base of the brain) causes testicles and ovaries to produce hormones Releases 8 different hormones into bloodstream 2 gstadotropins effect the ovaries and testicles 1 gonadotropic: Folliclestimulating hormone (FHS) stimulates maturation of a follicle in women (immature egg) and stimulates production of sperm in men 2 gonadotropic: luteinizing hormone (LH) – causes ovulation (release of egg) in women and stimulates testicles to produce male hormones Menstrual Cycle: monthly cycle of hormonal events in women o During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium of the uterus thickens and fills with blood to prepare for fertilization If the egg is not fertilized, it is discharged from the body Accompanied by bleeding o Average length of menstrual cycle 28 days The first day is often considered to when a woman starts bleeding Menstruation is actually the last phase of the menstrual cycle o Preovulatory phase Growing follicle secretes increased levels of estrogen then carried through bloodstream back to pituitary gland releases more FHS releases surge of LH, promoting growth of endometrium o Ovulation (app. Day 14) Within 1224 hours of the surge of LH, the follicle ruptures and the egg (ovum) travels to the abdominal cavity 1/21/16 The cells that made the follicle remain in the ovary, now called the corpus luteum, Hormonal changes alters cervical mucus Egg is only ripe for 24 hours of ovulation, and sperm can live in fallopian tubes up to 5 days o Posovulatory phase (days 1528) Referred to as the luteal or secretory phase Large levels of estrogen and progesterone are released Progesterone inhibits the pituitary gland from releasing more LH Endometrium develops small blood vessels and secrete nourishing substances Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) ensures corpus luteum will continued secreting estrogen and progesterone o Menstruation (days 14) Decline of estrogen and progesterone Endometrium sloughed off and shed over 36 days Discharge of blood, cervical mucus, and endometrial tissue
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'