Class Note for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA 3
Class Note for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA 3
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Lecture 04 31 Aug 2006 Noss1999 Ch3 Callicott Values and Ethics Conservation Biology ECOL WERNER In Conservation University of Arizona Fall 2006 Kevin Bonine Kathy Gerst Ch3 and Leopold readings for Tuesday No lab this Friday 01 Sept 2006 Housekeeping 31 August 2006 If not in lecture last week please see us after class Upcoming Readings today Noss 1999 Textbook chapter 3 Callicot39t 1997 Tues 05 Sept Textbook Ch 3 Leopold readings Thurs 07 Sept Text Ch4 Costanza 1997 Driessen 2004 Short oral presentations 3 Aug Kevin Gilliam and Whitney Henderson 05 Sept open 07 Sept open 2 Kevin Gilliam and Whitney Henderson take 2 Carl Bock SNR Seminar 30 Aug 2006 National Audubon Society Appleton Whinequot Research Ranch Elgin Arizona Grazed ungraZEd Exurban 12 12 Ranch 12 12 Grass Oak Mesquite A Cori Grant Allison Sonoita Valley Carl Bock working hypothesis b 39 E 2 In 2D Housing Densityacre 5 Noss 1999 Is there a special conservation biology Origins Soul et al 1978 SCB 1986 C onseria ion Bio09 y 1 987 Noss 1999 1 Are there principles of conservation biology 2 Is advocacy appropriate 3 Are we educating conservation biologists appropriately 4 Is conservation biology distinct from other disciplines Noss 1999 Principles 1 Species with large ranges safer than spp with small 2 Prefer large blocks of habitat and large populations 3 Prefer habitat blocks in close proximity to each other 4 Prefer unfragmented habitat Reserve Design 5 Prefer interconnected habitat to isolated 6 Prefer roadless and inaccessible habitat 7 PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE lfwe don t have enough data err on side of caution Prefer ecosystem approach to species approach Consider biodiversity hotspots 000 Noss 1999 2 Is advocacy appropriate Objectivity vs Neutrality Valueladen Responsible Advocacy 4 Is conservation biology distinct from other disciplines Normative Postulates 1 Diversity of organisms is good 2 Ecological complexity is good 3 Evolution is good 4 Biotic diversity has intrinsic value Michael Soule 1985 1986 see p 57 Van Dyke 10 Ethical Advocacy p117 Noss 1999 tropical rainforest vs economic development program 11 Noss 1999 3 Are we educating conservation biologists appropriately Science Management Policy 12 Pattern and Generality vs Special Case p 116 Noss 1999 13 Hutchinson 1948 as cited in Noss 1999 We should worry about global warming as a result of altering geochemical cycles 14 Values Ethics Philosophy Basis for estimau39on of worth Systematic organization of valus VALUE OF BIODNERSITY Instrumental utilitarian Intrinsic inherent 15 Ta I I e 21 Four Categories of the Instrumental Value of Biodiversity Category Example Goods Fuud fuel ber medicine Survices Pnumnw recychng muoan my non hameosta c regulalxun Infomation Genmc engincurmg applied hian gypun uzku Fsyvhnrspuitual AzsLhehcbmu mlminusavw scienti c knnwlsdge Caiiimtt 1997 m Values Ethics Philosophy Monetizing discount rate rates of growth and reproduction Economic development short sighted BCA Valuation methods willingness to pay accept travel cost existence value contingent valuation bequest value 17 Madagascar Periwinkle Argument Callicott p 30 Arrogant and Trivial 18 Figure 22 Convsnu ona new or economic activ y In a market economu sysiem economic goods and money ow between nouseho s and businesses n a dosed aup In many econom Ics ex muks such marke eccnomic systems are Shawn as he as H they were Selbcamained and thus Independent or the natura esuurces that suppurl a ecnnomies and a Me This mode remorse Ina dea Ina unnmited econunnc growm of any kind Is sustamable Pure Markek Economic System How of money Money flows rmm households in businessasm pay or 141 Miller 2003 Flow 01 producis Househnlds Conventional Economics Money ows mm businesses In householdsrla pay mr labor and other pmduclion new or money Ecological Economics Figure 243 E unreal wva ct Nulum quotannual Hviiy 5010ng Jun Cw ll unsxs uu almcmonne an human subsystem mm unpand an AH me vcsnu m1 swcss wowed rand sum H m m mp sun and ma emu ml moan9431752 my W m A 39 7 mm vesoumes Acnnsumav socmly law quotval l l cameo v ccomwr gr mam wllsly u turrmpammg ms w mwms aswmns mm ow leuhnt ognczu and unon mommy w an 4 lo no 39Jl am 39mquot 1 sunsmmec m ovum ne any 5quot 39 WI 9 must an vcsunuzo and 2 ways x wmcquot kaeyu palmch arm nnv ranml nw quotM 39J 39 unmadunmv a cheplaDle levels To onmoqmal uCunUmxsh vch a sac my 5 unaunlamsulu m m m us demuan and ougvada nn nl mural zesmmes mum at wmcn have no Sllhsmules 142 Miller 2003 10 Ecological vs Conventional Economics 5 Chal eclerlshr mm wumm Hu vw mum y mum s u Pam u m im mu mu u Figure 24 Compansun of unsusmmabie economic growth and envii unsustainable Economic Growth Quantity No very Imports lnel ciem hlgh waste High Nunrenawable Matter discarded Cleanup oulpul raducuo Risk bene t analysis mnmental y SusKamable ecanomic developmentv Anthropocentnc Biocentric Ecocen tric Environmentally Sustainable Economic Development Quality Very imponam Ef cient low waste Low Renewable Matty recycled reused or composted Preve ion input I39educlio Pvevemion and precauuon meme 44 22 11 Evolution of rights monarchs white males all menquot humanity sentient beings nature 5mm ngnw r r Ijmmnu gamma Bonuses Callicott p 47 23 Burden Of PI OOf Responsibility precautionary principle SMS safe minimum standard Developers Conservationists 1 Instrumental 3 0f P 2 Intrinsic B of P 3 BC A B of P 4 SMS B of P 24 12 Plastic Trees in Los Angeles knowledge gt advocacy Perhaps our grandsons having never seen a wild river will never miss the chance to set a canoe in singing waters Leopold5 Values Ethics Philosophy Rolston Essay p 35 in Callicott Chapter species vs species in the system definition of species value of evolutionary trajectory extinction and doors temporal and spatial scales 13 Values Ethics Philosophy Ethics constrain selfserving behavior in deference to some other good Tragedy of the Commons Role of religions interpretation 27 Science Vol 162 Issue 3859 12431248 13 December 1968 The Tragedy of the Commons Garrett Hardin The tragedy of the commons develops in this way Picture a pasture open to all It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars poaching and disease keep the numbers of both man and beast well below the carrying capacity of the land Finally however comes the day of reckoning that is the day when the longdesired goal of social stability becomes a reality At thispoint the inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy As a rational being each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain Explicitly or implicitly more or less consciously he asks quotWhat is the utility to me of adding one more animal to my herd This utility has one negative and one positive component 1 The positive component is a function of the increment of one animal Since the herdsman receives all the proceeds from the sale of the additional animal the positive utility is nearly1 2 The negative component is afunction ofthe additional overgrazing created by one more animal Since however the effects of overgrazing are shared by all the herdsmen the negative utility for any particular decisionmaking herdsman is only a fraction of 1 Adding together the component partial utilities the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for him to pursue is to add another animal to his herd And another and another But this is the conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons Therein is the tragedy Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limitin a world that is limited Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons Freedom in a commons bringszguin to all 14 Personal Example Virtue Van Dyke p 75 29 quotConservation may be a sign of personal virtue but it is not a sufficient basis for a sound comprehensive energy policyquot Vice President R Cheney April 2001 30 15 JudeoChristian Tradition Intrinsic value by divine decree Noah saving species Islam No separation of church and state Unity Trusteeship Accountability Hinduism Core of all being is one reality Brahman Prakrti matrix of the material creation 31 Buddhism Limit use of resources Nirvana selfsurroundings Jainism Each living thing has a soul 6 Taoism The way of nature don t buck it 32 16 Iroquois consider the impact of their decisions on the seventh generation to come Chipko Hindu links The ultimate treehuggers Himalayas of India am am 4min WWW w cum JVamzrrv PM W Codn luau V wan 1 39l 3 lulu Table 33 senn Mninr nunun nnn snnnn limlmnumunl and l unscl mliun TYPE OF VA LUE MOTIVATION FDR CONSERVATION l Jullcmt39llrisliun sichIIlthp l llculclllnc Prune n39c Ill cwl Il k ll sy39slcrns lhlll lul Ilni Lumlllillldctl humans In are run as cxcnnplnncu lwy mu placing ur mn n in Ilu garden in quotwul k l5 llnnlnnssuonlu msrvul um um linslmy Urd 39 Ilulllljwnrt Dean ccnlugyuml rclalnl limocllln39c the n39 his nrinll39iunic valuc ullrihlllcd ln unnlluman nulum plw vulucxyslcms linliL lljuns nn lnnmn pmmgali s mum ul39 nllnrnnlnn and musl kt mspuml 3 139muslaunnllnnuli 5 nlllmrn7ntrlc I LL5mm un riluul value ulnnlunn nunun rlmvidm mlncz ln lnumtcll39lcnllllism considch lccml qumiuns and can IIIer lnnnnn lliclr nn 4 39ullslmillcd cannmncn Anlnmpmnric chuuru nw ix prlrnully a pmhlml ul39hunmncmnnnm llmnullc lvuitliny irrcrLniblcdllma H m um imlxmcnl i hcllcllcinl IIXI cn nimnmu unqu b p Mn alwhtn Illc ccnllumic ml in nnl tm yrclllt an risk mung nnnnuun scrim ml avoiding innunmann dum n lo I cnvlmnnmu am insunculluu s Scicnli c nalumlixm Sk39icnccc ulcml sunnuuc lllcnn ul cnnluunn ml ccnlugy mnnl ncvtsstln39 leils un ccutrlllril pupuuuun ymwlll uni Viulcucc lu lllc I ll Dyllumixm and tunicnu alism me vrnlIhniivtl L lamaminan Ml lmpm cnlric nanny mnn zluminuliml mcnlnlurc is nlbulic ul39hi dnnli lliun l39uninlun nm mum 1mm lug um mwimllmrlll nuns ln cum lmll cnvirm mnnlnl null xuziul pmhlcnls 7A I lumlismprupmulism An inlrumnllic l llilusupl lyl ulllmugh n can mm as n lml u sunn nnnnl ml lclns is nnl Cmle il l Rulher pr Iicnl lmlhlcm SE lVlll und Illicul plinciplcs nrc uxd ln nddms cxwilmlmclllnl isu nnn ll 1 lnwnnl n Vl39i39lr n M mm mm l mman hm 34 Van kae 2003 17 Role ofscale as Five axion39s ofconsensus among environmentalists 1 Dynamism 2 Interrelateclness 3 Nested systems 4 Creative processes 5 Differential fragility Norma 1991 see van We p 72 35 18
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