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HUSC 2003 Unit 1 Lecture Notes

by: Morgan Jones

HUSC 2003 Unit 1 Lecture Notes HUSC 2003

Marketplace > Auburn University > Public Health > HUSC 2003 > HUSC 2003 Unit 1 Lecture Notes
Morgan Jones
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These notes cover the rest of the video lectures for Unit 1. Time saved~ 1:57:54 !!
Hunger: Causes, Consequences, and Responses
Mary Katherine Brock Thornton
Class Notes
HUSC, Hunger
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Jones on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HUSC 2003 at Auburn University taught by Mary Katherine Brock Thornton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Hunger: Causes, Consequences, and Responses in Public Health at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
Unit 1 Notes Lectures 3 + 4 Notes Lecture 3: The Physical Side of Hunger Video 1-3-1: Concepts and Measurements •! Food insecurity is a lack of constant access to food •! Hunger is not having the 2100 cals/day to be considered nourished •! Undernourished is being both food insecure and hungry Food insecure Hungry Undernourished ! ! Video 1-3-2: Food Insecurity •! Food security: a condition that exists when all people at all times are free from hunger •! There are four elements to food security: 1.!Availability (food is there) 2.!Access (you can actually get the food) 3.!Utilization (the food has nutrients your body can use) 4.!Vulnerability (you are living in sustainable conditions) •! So, food insecurity occurs when one of these elements is missing HUNGER STATUS Inadequate Inadequate Inadequate Availibility Access Utilization Vulnerability physical and environmental risks, economic and market risks, and social and health risks Video 1-3-3: Hunger •! Hunger: a condition in which people lack the required nutrients o! Macronutrients: proteins, carbs, and fats o! Micronutrients: vitamins and minerals •! Types of hunger: 1.!Short term -! a transitory, mild form of hunger that temporarily affects mental and physical capacity -! ex: missing a meal 2.!Acute #! occurs when people suffer from hunger for short periods, usually due to shocks such as drought or conflict #! Ex: those who had sufficient food suddenly having none (Haiti) 3.!Chronic #! Occurs when people suffer from hunger for long term periods #! Ex: hunger becoming a normal condition 4.!Hidden #! Occurs when people lack essential micronutrients, even if they are getting enough macronutrients #! Ex: obesity •! Physical side of hunger: 1.!An enzyme, gheralin, is released in the stomach, causing glycogen levels in blood to decrease 2.!This tells your hypothalamus to create the hunger sensation 3.!So you eat.. 4.!When you eat, leptin and other hormones are released from your stomach 5.!Your hypothalamus creates satiation sensation (takes 15 -20 mins to feel full) •! Mental side of hunger: 1.!Cultural/societal factors (meal times, preferred food, color) 2.!Emotional factors (stress, repulsion, anger) 2" Video 1-3-4: Under-nutrition •! Malnutrition: deviations from adequate and optimal nutritional status; includes both under-nutrition and over-nutrition (obesity) •! Undernutrition: a form of hunger that results from serious deficiencies in one of more essential nutrients and that have lasting mental and physical impacts •! Two types: 1.!Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) a.! A result of deficiencies in any or all nutrients (particularly macronutrients) 2.!Micronutrient Deficiency Diseases (MDD ’s) a.! A result of lack of micronutrients •! Measurements of Under-nutrition 1.!Stunting (shortness- height for age) due to chronic under-nutrition 2.!Wasting (thinness- weight for height) due to acute under-nutrition 3.!Underweight (thinness + shortness) due to chronic malnutrition The first child is normal height/weight. The second is stunted. The third is wasted. The fourth child is underweight. Video 1-3-5: Malnutrition •! Forms of PEM 1.!Marasmus: severe loss of body weight 2.!Kwashiorkor: swelling due to fluid buildup in the stomach (oedema) and includes peeling of skin around stomach 3.!Marasmic Kwashiorkor: combination of the two 3" Video 1-3-6: Micronutrient Deficiency •! Three most common MDD’s 1.!Iron Deficiency (anemia) a.!Iron is essential for transport of oxygen in blood b.!Deficiency leads to: poor cognitive development of children, maternal death, and fatigue c.! 3-5 billion people are affected worldwide d.!Symptoms: vision problems, thin/rough nails e.! Solutions: access to fortified foods (cereals, wheat, maize) 2.!Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) a.!Leading cause of preventable blindness among pre-school children b.!Weakens immune system and increases clinical severity and mortality risk from measles and diarrhea c.! WHO estimates 21% of all children suffer from VAD d.!Solutions: Vitamin A (oranges, red fruits, vegetables, breastfeeding, cereals) 3.!Iodine Deficiency (goiter) a.!Single most common preventable cause of mental retardation and brani damage b.!Symptoms: goiter (growth in neck) c.! Solutions: iodization of salt, fish, seaweed Note: all of these solutions cost pennies Video 1-3-7: Additional Nutrition Video “Sack vid pa kapab konpe.” ~ “An empty sack cannot stand.” – Haitian wisdom •! Progress is being made o! 1 in 4 children in the developing world under the age of five is underweight now, down from 1 in 3 4" Lecture 4: Key Issues to Consider Video 1-4-2: Domestic vs. Global Hunger •! USDA defines hunger differently than international agencies like the UN or WFA •! Base definition of hunger: “the uneasy or painful sensation caused by lack of food” o! Recently, the US government has shown aversion to using the word “hunger” o! More often used is the term “food insecure” Video 1-4-3: Defining and Measuring Hunger •! Hunger in the USA o! Less severe than in developing countries o! Here, it mostly exists in the form of skipped meals or cutting back on quantity/quality •! How food insecurity is measured in USA 1.!High Food Security a.! A household does not answer “yes” to any of the food insecurity questions 2.!Marginal Food Security a.! Household answers “yes” to one or two of the security questions (basically, there are periods of the month/year where food security is less) 3.!Low Food Security a.! Have had to make changes in quantity/quality to deal with a limited budget 4.!Very Low Food Security a.! Have struggled with having enough food regularly (This is the UN’s level of CHRONIC food insecurity) 5" Video 1-4-4: Food Insecurity in the US •! Certain groups are more affected (results of geographic/socioeconomic/demographic barriers) •! Who are the food insecure? o! Socioeconomic !! Poor, working poor, farmers, low-income, homeless, ethnic minorities o! Demographic !! Very young and elderly o! Other Causes: !! Lack of: affordable housing, education, employment skills !! Insufficient community food resources !! Reluctance of people to accept charity !! Mental illness, depression, and loneliness !! Alcoholism and chronic substance abuse Video 1-4-5: Health and Nutritional Concerns •! Food insecurity is associated with heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, food allergies, obesity •! How obesity? o! Low income families get their energy from low-cost items that are heavy in calories (mostly fat) and lack nutritional valu e o! “Boom or Bust” cycles linked to distribution of benefits !! ex: only being able to access a food bank four times a year o! Causes: !! Inadequate nutrition as a child !! Lack of resources/access to resources (education and counseling, healthcare, weight management programs, recreational facilities) *leads to an intergenerational cycle of poverty and hunger Video 1-4-6: USDA Statistics (from 2008) •! 49 million people in US live in food insecure households •! 21% of children under age 6 live in poverty 6" •! preschool and school-aged children who experience hunger have higher levels of chronic illness, anxiety, depression, and behavioral problems •! 10% of all Americans over 65 are poor •! US hunger costs Americans $90 billion a year •! 10 states with the highest food insecurity: Mississippi, New Mexico, Texas, South Carolina, Oklahoma, Utah, California, Arkansas , Kentucky, Alabama, and Arizona •! ¼ of all food produced in the US is lost (spoils or is thrown away) Video 1-4-7: Vulnerable Populations •! People at greatest risk live in households that are: o! Headed by a single woman o! Hispanic or black o! With incomes below the poverty line o! Have children (experience insecurity at almost double the rate) o! In urban centers or the Black Belt •! Government Safety Nets o! Help families stretch their food dollars and get healthier foods, not to be entirely depended on !! National school lunch and breakfast programs !! Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program !! Federal Food Stamps Program (SNAP) o! Only about 65% of eligible people actually participate in these programs Video 1-4-8: Hunger Internationally •! For example, Bangladesh o! Country in Southeast Asia about the size of the state of Indiana, but Indiana’s population is about 5 million… and Bangladesh’s is about 147 million o! Issues in Bangladesh: !! Lacking 9% of total food (availability) !! Lack of income or land (access) 7" !! Nutritionally lacking (utilization) !! Natural disasters (vulnerability) Video 1-4-9: Similarities Between Domestic and Global Hunger •! Hunger affects the poor •! Key issues is the government’s “tool kit” •! Primarily women and children affected •! Negative effect on national economy •! Trends: o! Intergenerational cycle of hunger o! Lack of access to education and resources o! Weakening of immune system o! More prone to disease o! Negative effects of brain development (low literacy rates and unemployment) Basically: leaving the hungry poor to fend for themselves eventually ends up costing exponentially more for a society than if a society provides goods and services to help the hungry poor move up the social ladder and out of poverty 8"


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