Week 2 Lecture Notes
Week 2 Lecture Notes HD 202
Popular in Middle childhood through Adolescence
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Popular in Human Development
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Coster on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 202 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Amy Cole in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Middle childhood through Adolescence in Human Development at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Lecture 1/20/16 Biological Development Genetic Lingo: DNA: substance of which genes and chromosomes are made Genes: segments of DNA along chromosome Chromosomes: store and transmit genetic info Meiosis Division of cells to create gametes o Ensure transmissions of constant quantity Patterns of Gene-Gene Interactions Alleles inherited from parents (dominant or recessive) Physical traits Disabilities and diseases Ex: bad hearing X-Linked Inheritance Harmful allele carried on X-chromosome Males are more susceptible/ female carriers Nature compensates o 106 boys to 100 girls Ex: bad X Activity: Brainstorm most obvious similarities (physically or behaviorally) Next try to trace visible phenotype (physical feature) as far as you can in family history. EX: 1. Eyes = dad, hair = mix of mom and dad, skin complexion = dad, height = grandma, facial expressions = mom 2. Blue eyes = Me -> dad -> paternal grandparents -> paternal grandpa’s mom (great grandma) Mutation Sudden permanent change in DNA Can occur spontaneously Somatic: normal cells mutate, effect DNA to cause disabilities and diseases Germline: mutation that occurs in sex cells, mutation passed along with reproduction Mutation and Chromosomal Abnormalities Mutations/abnormal chromosomes can result in known diseases and disorders o Cancer o Hereditary disease o Down syndrome o Sexual abnormalities Down Syndrome 95% of cases come from chromosome 21 when it fails to separate Consequences o Intellectual disability o Speech problems o Slow motor development o Distinct phsycial features o Increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease starting at 40 Non-distunction: pair that does not separate Options for Parents Genetic counseling Conceive knowing risks Reproductive technologies o Donor o IVF o Surrogate o Prenatal Diagnostics Amino Ultra sounds Options when Pregnant Fetal treatments o Can result in complications (i.e. miscarriage) o Surgery o Blood transfusion Other Options: Genetic engineering o Human Genome Project video Adoption Lecture 1/22/16 Environmental Foundations Announcements Syllabus update again Monday Ch 11 Research Paper Goal: think critically about different ways an issue of your choice in middle-childhood thru emerging adulthood affects development What You’re Writing o The Issue o The Theory o Practical Application How to Write o 1500-2000 words o use headings o APA style o Cite at least 3 scholarly resources (textbook may be one) o Submit ONE paper with TWO names on it MONDAY 4/25 Lecture: Ecological Microsystem: direct Mesosystem: connects to Micro Exosystem: indirect (does not include child) Macrosystem: society (values) Chronosystem: time/history Family Influences on Development Microsystem Direct: two-person relationship o Warm interaction: positive relationship = positive development o Sporadic interaction: negative relationship = negative development Indirect: 3 party influence on child development o Ex: mom and dad’s interactions Families adaption to change o Change within and outside the family o Older family members development affects the child development Socioeconomic Status Education level (parents) Income Occupation Timing of parenthood (age became parents) and size (# of kids) Values and Expectations of families Communication and discipline styles Influence child’s cognitive development Children in Poverty in U.S. Single mom = increased chance Ethnic minority = increased chance Highest rate of child poverty at 22% More now the during Recession America’s wealth has increased by 60% but so has the amount of homeless children Over half of public school students qualify for reduced lunches Blood sugar affects emotions and cognitive Lead to physical problems, social problems, risk factor of mental illness later in life The Neighborhood Impact of after school organizations o Individual help (cognitive) o Social experience o Builds resiliency o Increased self-confidence o Better school achievement Benefits for parents too o Provides support o “Takes a village” standpoint School Benefits of parent-school contact o Build trust for younger children o Parents know what’s going on (accountability) o Resiliency Macrosystem: Society Importance of cultural context o Beliefs, traditions, identity, values o Shapes every aspect of life Values vary – U.S./Western culture value o Money/wealth o Education/achievement o Consuming o Religion o Individualism Differences in ethnic subcultures o African American families Multigenerational o Latino families Emphasis of extended family Putting it Together: Genes and Environment Research on heredity o Twin studies Identical makeup Limitations: misapplication Gene-Environment Correlation Passive correlation: genetic Evocative correlation Active correlation o Niche picking: choosing what works best for us
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