Lecture Notes 1/20/16
Lecture Notes 1/20/16 21001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kennedy on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 21001 at Kent State University taught by Devon M. Hawkins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Intro to Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Kennedy 1 Lecture Notes: 1/20/16, Intro to Ethics 1. Philosophy = the love of wisdom; the examined life (examined through reflecting and questioning) a. 5 branches i. Ethics = the study and pursuit of the good life (good as in holistic in respects to the mind, body, and soul) 1. Value theory = the study of value; what things are worth value and why they are valued 2. Normative ethics = “ethical theory” = theories of right action (how ppl behave and how to behave correctly 3. Metaethics = questions about the status of morality (why be ethical?) 4. Moral problems = applied ethics to certain situation; starts with the problem and works outward a. Moral and ethical are interchangeable terms ii. Epistemology = the study of knowledge (how do we know things? Can I know things?) 1. Rationalism = states that we can perceive things of the mind and know them via the perception of the mind 2. Empiricism = states that we can know things by encountering them with our senses 3. Skepticism = questions whether or not we can actually know things 4. Fideism = states that we know things by revelation via faith iii. Metaphysics = the study of reality and what is real 1. Ontology = the study of being 2. Realism = the idea that reality isn’t dependent on mind/thought/language 3. Idealism = the idea that reality is dependent on the mind/thought/language iv. Logic = the methodology of philosophy (how we assess the arguments that we make) v. Aesthetics = the study of beauty and art; closely related to ethics because beauty is considered a value 1. Axiology = the study of value that groups ethics, aesthetics, and social and political philosophy together a. Social and political philosophy = the ethics for the groups rather than the individuals 2. Logic and Argumentation a. Argument = a group of statements used to imply a conclusion; lays out the case Kennedy 2 i. Good arguments are wellreasoned and have 2 premises that necessarily lead to the conclusion ii. 2 types 1. Inductive arguments = arguments based on a probable connection between the premises and the conclusion; if the premises are true then it is highly probable that the conclusion is true a. Strong = characteristic of an inductive argument that describes the existence of a probable connection btwn premises and conclusion b. Weak = characteristic of an inductive argument that describes the lack of a probable connection between premises and conclusion c. Cogent = a strong inductive argument with all true premises (opposite = uncogent) 2. Deductive arguments = arguments that are based on a necessary connection between premises and the conclusion a. Valid = characteristic of a deductive argument that states that if the argument’s premises are true then the conclusion is true and that the necessary connection is present b. Invalid = characteristic of a deductive argument that states that there is a lack of a necessary connection; state that the premises are true but the conclusion is false c. Sound = a valid deductive argument with all true premises (opposite = unsound) b. Conclusion = the statement that is supported by other statements c. Premises = the statements that support a conclusions and that are offered in support of the conclusion d. Opinion = a statement that is not supported e. Statements = declarative sentences that are either true or false. i. Truth value = the extent that we know the statement to be true or false ii. 2 kinds of statements 1. Categorical = relates 2 classes or categories of things (ex: all humans are mortals) a. Sample argument formed with categorical statements: all humans are mortal (P1). Socrates is a human (P2). Therefore Socrates is mortal (C). 2. Conditional = “if/then” statement (ex: if the sun is shining then it isn’t cloudy) Kennedy 3 a. Sample argument formed with conditional statements: if the sun is shining then it is not cloudy (P1). The sun is shining (P2). Therefore it is not cloudy (C). If it is not cloud then it is not rainy (P2). Therefore if it is sunny, then it is not cloudy (C).
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