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Lecture Notes 1/20/16

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by: Hannah Kennedy

Lecture Notes 1/20/16 21001

Marketplace > Kent State University > PHIL-Philosophy > 21001 > Lecture Notes 1 20 16
Hannah Kennedy
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These notes include the intro to philosophy lecture. It also includes the branches of philosophy and their sub-branches and the components of logic and argument.
Intro to Ethics
Devon M. Hawkins
Class Notes
ethics, philosophy, logic, Argument
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kennedy on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 21001 at Kent State University taught by Devon M. Hawkins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Intro to Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Kent State University.


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What an unbelievable resource! I probably needed course on how to decipher my own handwriting, but not anymore...

-Robb Ledner


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Date Created: 01/23/16
Kennedy 1 Lecture Notes: 1/20/16, Intro to Ethics 1. Philosophy = the love of wisdom; the examined life (examined through reflecting  and questioning) a. 5 branches i. Ethics = the study and pursuit of the good life (good as in holistic in  respects to the mind, body, and soul) 1. Value theory = the study of value; what things are worth  value and why they are valued  2. Normative ethics = “ethical theory” = theories of right action  (how ppl behave and how to behave correctly 3. Meta­ethics = questions about the status of morality (why be  ethical?) 4. Moral problems = applied ethics to certain situation; starts  with the problem and works outward a. Moral and ethical are interchangeable terms ii. Epistemology = the study of knowledge (how do we know things?  Can I know things?) 1. Rationalism = states that we can perceive things of the mind  and know them via the perception of the mind 2. Empiricism = states that we can know things by encountering them with our senses 3. Skepticism = questions whether or not we can actually know  things 4. Fideism = states that we know things by revelation via faith iii. Metaphysics = the study of reality and what is real 1. Ontology = the study of being 2. Realism = the idea that reality isn’t dependent on  mind/thought/language 3. Idealism = the idea that reality is dependent on the  mind/thought/language iv. Logic = the methodology of philosophy (how we assess the arguments  that we make) v. Aesthetics = the study of beauty and art; closely related to ethics  because beauty is considered a value 1. Axiology = the study of value that groups ethics, aesthetics,  and social and political philosophy together a. Social and political philosophy = the ethics for the  groups rather than the individuals 2. Logic and Argumentation a. Argument = a group of statements used to imply a conclusion; lays out the  case Kennedy 2 i. Good arguments are well­reasoned and have 2 premises that  necessarily lead to the conclusion ii. 2 types 1. Inductive arguments = arguments based on a probable  connection between the premises and the conclusion; if the  premises are true then it is highly probable that the conclusion  is true a. Strong = characteristic of an inductive argument that  describes the existence of a probable connection btwn  premises and conclusion b. Weak = characteristic of an inductive argument that  describes the lack of a probable connection between  premises and conclusion c. Cogent = a strong inductive argument with all true  premises (opposite = uncogent) 2. Deductive arguments = arguments that are based on a  necessary connection between premises and the conclusion a. Valid = characteristic of a deductive argument that  states that if the argument’s premises are true then the  conclusion is true and that the necessary connection is  present b. Invalid = characteristic of a deductive argument that  states that there is a lack of a necessary connection;  state that the premises are true but the conclusion is  false c. Sound = a valid deductive argument with all true  premises (opposite = unsound) b. Conclusion = the statement that is supported by other statements c. Premises = the statements that support a conclusions and that are offered  in support of the conclusion d. Opinion = a statement that is not supported e. Statements = declarative sentences that are either true or false.  i. Truth value = the extent that we know the statement to be true or  false ii. 2 kinds of statements 1. Categorical = relates 2 classes or categories of things (ex: all  humans are mortals) a. Sample argument formed with categorical statements:  all humans are mortal (P1). Socrates is a human (P2).  Therefore Socrates is mortal (C).  2. Conditional = “if/then” statement (ex: if the sun is shining  then it isn’t cloudy) Kennedy 3 a. Sample argument formed with conditional statements:  if the sun is shining then it is not cloudy (P1). The sun is shining (P2). Therefore it is not cloudy (C). If it is not  cloud then it is not rainy (P2). Therefore if it is sunny,  then it is not cloudy (C).


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