Outline for ECOL 482 at UA
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Fish as Prey AntiPredation Cycle Predatorrprey arrns race results in prey evolving strategies to deter each stage in the predation cycle in prey Selection strongly favors Strategies that dlSrupt the predation cycle as early as possible i e don t be seen and you can t be eaten The AntiPredation Cycle Avoid detection Evade pursuit Prevent and de ect attacks Discourage capture Discourage handling Predation Cycle5 parts Searching Pursuing Attacking Capturing Handling The AntiPredation Cycle Avoid detection Evade pursuit Prevent and de ect attacks Discourage capture Discourage handling Avoid Detection Camou age 7 Protective resemblance Make yourseif iookilke your background Bedy grewtns Background matenlng uiuratlurl Reduced mwemem e g leaty seadragens mlmle seaweed e g rlamsn enange ruler and pattern Avoid Detection Camou age Disruptive coloration Bedy covered reglens entrastng elers eryertleal pars erspets areaks up outllne oman less reeegnlzaple as petentlalreed ltem Eg angelnsnletttlaeknlrensntngrt Avoid Detection As an aiternatlyeto camou age prey may be conspicuousy but use mimicry to resemble sometnlng lrledlbiei E g iuuk ilKE plant matenal Drmlml atml nsn Below lal tasty prey rangplenny w color pattern that mimics by a luyenlle bluestreak ieanerwrasse tnat is lett alene ey mest predaters Shown in c and a arerangplennles tnatiackmlmetl eeleraten Avoid Detection lnylslblllty Countershading e Unlquetu aduate systems rapters77 7 Pattern ennsn uppusltE te patterns er llgntln Water 7 Dark untup llgnten pettem e ylew nem tep r nsn plends lnte dark Waterbamgruunu 7 View trem pettem e plends lnte llgnt background er sky 7 Works rer all VlEerlg angles 7 Reverse coumershadlng used py males dunng preedlng seasen Countershadlng m Fish Avoid Detection Invisib ty silvery sides 7 Open Water specres L 7 Covered in Smaii mirrors e Lateraiiy cornpressed to be as verticai as possibie deviations from vemcai make he fish visibiE 7 hence siivery fiashesi Avoid Detection Detect your predator before it detects you Swim in a shoal or school rnore eyes on he iuukruuti Spend time under objects that cast a shadow Berng rn shadow aiiows a nsh to see predators rn the open Weii oerore the predator sees thern think about driving through a torest But predators use the sarne Strategyi Avoid Detection Invisibility Transparency 7 Surface dweiiing specres e e g giass nsh e Larvae androvenriensh e Ciear muscies and bones 7 Brain eye gonads can t be ciear Covered by srivernhn mnetron unknown Avoid Detection Swim with others 7 Lmver probabihty Elf detectiun fur an individuai in a schuui than an individuai Elri its mm 7 Drnerentspesres torrn monospeclflc groups Predaturs target different individuais e Prey can act as a group aggressiveiy towards predator mobblng behavior aisu seen rn orrds e Predamrlnspectlon srngiensh do uutand evaiuate predator r e sumebu v drenthe short 5113M Avoid Detection Beyond visual detection e in general nttie known e Sound is more rrnportant to conceal in terrestnai naprtats easier to near in Water but narder to locate source or sound e Eiectnc insulation to avoid detection by eiectroiocatron 77 e Mucous cocoons or resting parrotnsnes excreted from gills may prevent tne release or body cnernrcais tnat could reveal tnerr presencetopredators 7 Evade Pursuit strategies to discourage predator e Spines e Toxic skininternal organs e Make use or aposematic Warning coloration or penavror angnt unspicuuus cuiuratrun andor sluw escape response Signal to predaturtnattnev are dangerous eg surgeunfisn irunrrsn The AntiPredation Cycle Avoid detection Evade pursuit Prevent and de ect attacks Discourage capture Discourage handling 4 Evade Pursuit Move to shelter Complex habitats Bottom sediments Macropnvtes Corals Anv spaces prev can get into tnat predator cannot follow a r r m 39 r r Evade Pursuit Move to shelter Complex habitats Eg garden eels zooplank ivores razorlish The AntiPredation Cycle Avoid detection Evade pursuit Prevent and deflect attacks Discourage capture 39 Discourage handling Evade Pursuit Open water escape Outrun outmaneuver or y Most prey can t outrun predators are smaller Prey may be able to outmaneuver Flyinglish lly i e jump and glide out of the water Can double their speed up to 70 kmh amp am out of water Many prey species jump out of water do not glide like yinglish Prevent and Deflect Attack Prevent with last second evasive move Deflect with structural defenses ie spines etc Prevent and De ect Attack The AntiPredation Cycle Avoid detection Evade pursuit Prevent and deflect attacks Discourage capture Discourage handling Foraging in groups helps prevent attack Dilution effect the probability of an individual being eaten decreases with larger group size Prevent and De ect Attack Discourage Capture Prevention 0f attaCk by V Take advantage of gape limitation gr up f ragers Static or dynamic adaptations Confusion effect Predators associated with body sizeshape become confused by so many prey some speci c prey Prey may be dif cult to handle or behaviors encourage this hard to eat V r 11 Predators switch targets too Elongate spines or ns or very deep c often to catch many prey body 1 Prey fish choose to enter 1 Blow up eg pufferfish or erect larger schools when given spines eg bluegill the choice Discourage Capture Alarm chemicals Ostariophysi Produced when the skin is broken other sh may respond by schooling more densely leaving area etc response varies by species Alarm chemicals may also attract larger predatory fishes that scare off the target predator Visual alarm signals n movements head bobbing again used to communicate with others Auditory signals Evolution of signals requires a benefit to individual Kin selection Attraction oflarger predator Discourage Handling Rabbitfishes forward directed spines so they can t go in backward or forward Mucus excretion Distasteful eg toad sh or may make mechanical handling dif cult eg hag sh Tough dermis Releasable scales murmurquot Immwmvmul mam l39mln The AntiPredation Cycle Avoid detection Evade pursuit Prevent and deflect attacks Discourage capture Discourage handling Foraging vs Threat of Predation Tradeoff the more a fish forages the more food it will acquire but also more likely to be eaten Many sh species change foraging behavior or switch habitats when predators are present Fish constantly conducting costbene t analyses V lling take more risks ifrewards are greater Ano her way to think ofoptimal foragingtheory i e increase bene t and minimize cost Trophic Cascades more later Indirect interaction Density mediated Picsnores effect Zoopiankton by eating Zoopianktivofes Behaviorally mediated Picsivofes effect Zoopian kton by CauSing Zoopianktivofea to cnange tneif foraging behavior i Muzakman I ruycnwn mime
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