Week 2 Lecture Notes
Week 2 Lecture Notes Psychology 105
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Coster on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 105 at Washington State University taught by Olesya Mikheeva in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Introductory in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Lecture 1/20/16 Writing assignment Plagiarism test Find article on PsychInfo (link on blackbloard) o Print article out Read Describe what you learned from the article o Outlined on Rubric (on blackboard) Start Research Participation Chapter 2: Neuroscience and Behavior Why do we study neuroscience in Psych? Chemicals in the brain o Emotions Behavioral abnormalities o Caused by neuron Different areas of the brain o Psychological disorders o Memory How does our nervous system work? Neurons o Cells that receive and transmit messages Three types o Sensory: environment -> brain o Motor: brain -> muscles and glands o Interneurons: communicate between neurons Parts of the Neuron Cell body: green circle at the top of the image on the slides on blackboard “soma” Manufactures protein Contains the nucleus Dendrites: Short fibers that extend from the cell body Receive the messages Neurotransmitters land on dendrites Axon: yellow tube that extends from cell body In most neurons Carry information to other neurons to glands to muscles Myelin Sheath: outside of the axon White-fatty covering wrapped abound axons of some neurons Not all axons have myelin sheath and not all neurons have axons Why do we need the myelin sheath? Neurons with myelin sheath axons communicate 100x faster than unmyelinated axons What if the myelin sheath is damaged? o Multiple sclerosis Degeneration of myelin sheath Transmission of neural messages slowed/interrupted Result? o Muscle weakness, loss of coordination, speech disturbance Communication within the Neuron Messages gathered by dendrites o Chemical messages (neural transmitters) Stimulus threshold: minimum level of stimulation necessary to active it When reached, action potential=actual process of message being sent down the axon At axon segments – sodium in, potassium out Synaptic transmission: communication between neurons o Neuron’s #1 job: communicate to other cells o Synaptic gap/synapse = where communication takes place o Presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron = send neuron and receive neuron o Chemical communication: synapse diffused across synapse Neurotransmitter -> chemical messengers made by neuron o Excitatory VS inhibitory messages Excitatory: adds to stimulus threshold = more likely to make it fire Inhibitory: takes away the ability to fire Reuptake: retake a certain chemical so it is not floating around Why are Neurotransmitters important? Ability to think, feel, and act depends on balance of neurotransmitters Dopamine: movement, attention, learning, rewarding, sensations Rewarding = dopamine (the feeling) Drug addiction (cocaine, nicotine) Parkinson’s o Tremor (movement) o Degeneration of neurons that create dopamine o Lack of dopamine Schizophrenia Too much dopamine (dopamine over-activity) Antipsychotic = levels of dopamine Lecture 1/22/16 Neurotransmitter: GABA Inhibitory o Stopping Too much o Impairs learning o Impairing of motivation Too little o Lead to seizures Alcohol affect of GABA levels o Increase Anti-anxiety affect of GABA levels o Increase Endorphins Brains natural pain killer Chemically similar to morphine o 100x more potent than morphine Act like neurotransmitters Released in response to stress and trauma Reduce perception of pain o Brain perceives pain, endorphins released, no longer perceive pain How Drugs Affect Synaptic Transmission Block Reuptake o Increases amount of neurotransmitters in brain Ex: SSRI Mimic o Agonsit: binds to receptor cites Ex: nicotine o Antagonist: blocks effect of neurotransmitter Ex: naloxone (used with ODs) o Antagonist to opiod receptor cites Chapter 2: Neuroscience and Behavior Central Nervous system: Brain and Spinal Cord Brain is highly susceptible to injury o Ex: conxussion Cause physical damage Disrupts brain function Damages axon, myelin sheath, brain chemistry May not show on CAT Scan or MRI Symptoms Loss of consciousness, dizzy, blurred/double vision, slurred speech, memory loss Repeated concussions o CTE Diagnosed after death Depression, anxiety, poor judgment, lack of impulse control, memory/attention problems, dementia Peripheral Nervous System Carries messages to and from the CNS o Somatic o Autonomic Sympathetic Parasympathetic Brain shaped by experiences Neuroplasticity: ability to change function and structure Functional plasticity: shift functions from damaged to undamaged areas Structural plasticity: change in structure due to learning, practice, or environment Hindbrain: most basic functions, involuntary, very bottom connects to spinal cord Medulla: breathing Pons: “bridge” connections of left and right brain Cerebellum: coordination Forebrain: corpus callosum (sideways ear) main link between right and left hemisphere Cerebral Cortex: “the brain” divided into lobes
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