Political Science 41A Intro to International Relations Week Two Notes
Political Science 41A Intro to International Relations Week Two Notes Pol Sci 41A
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joyce Nguy on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pol Sci 41A at University of California - Irvine taught by HARDT, H in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see INTRO INTL RELATNS in Political Science at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
1/12/16 Pol Sci 41A Week Two The Evolution of Global Politics 1. know the years of these key evenets a. peace of westphalia b. french revolution c. congress of vienna d. ww1 e. ww2 f. cold war g. african independence (195060s) h. cuban missile crisis 2. peace of westphalia a. 1648 i. arrangements for governance, human rights, economics ii. introduced the sovereign state (sovereignty) 1. first time leaders came together and agreed on some system of government 2. sovereign independent, autonomous b. peace of utrecht i. formalized b alance of power a just equilibrium, different states trying to balance their power against each other, military power ii. ended war of the spanish succession (17011714) 3. after thirty years war a. european international developments: 16481776 b. 1700s view that europe constituted a “republic” i. determination by all states ii. mutual recognition iii. reliance on balance of power c. diplomacy, international law, freedom i. until.. ii. napoleon emerges as leader after storm of bastille 4. revolutionary wars a. french revolutions (1789) i. sovereignty was vested in “the nations” 1. crucial impetus to the idea of national selfdetermination ii. concert of europe 1. developed after defeat of napoleon (1815) 2. “great powers’ club” 3. regional meetings to stabilize european politics 4. managed hierarchical 5. redrew lines in europe b. consequences i. congress of vienna (18141815) 1. redrew the political map of europe 2. great powers collectively guarantee various treaties a. defining status of switzerland, belgium, and luxembourg 3. many treaties established rules in various technical and economic areas a. humanitarian issues, including slavery b. treatment of those wounded in war 5. concert of europe to 1815 congress of vienna 6. meanwhile across the pond… a. 1700s 1900s emergence of the US as a superpower i. US revolution (1776) ii. after civil war (18611865) massive industrial development iii. US military expansion and sophistication 7. world war 1 a. global complex alliances and imperialism b. military technology shaped ways in which combatants fought c. why did WW1 begin? i. archbishop of serbia assasinated...trigger ii. reason: assassination of one person level: individual iii. reason: global alliance assassination level: global 8. interwar period a. treaty of versaille (1919) i. created conditions that led to world war 2 ii. germany had signed armistice in 1918 on basis of fourteen points, instead was blamed for starting war iii. germany had to pay reparations to britain and france b. league of nations wanted to prevent second world war, woodrow wilson i. failed because no key players US didn’t show up 9. world war 2 a. germany used new style of offensive warfare: blitzkrieg i. defeated poland, france, and others quickly ii. bogged down after june 1941 attack on USSR b. Holocaust: attempted genocide c. United States drawn into war following 1941 Japanese attack d. controversy continues over US decision to use atomic bombs 10. end of colonialism a. defeat of european powers undermimnes legitimacy as colonial 11. the age of decolonization AFRICAN INDEPENDENCE a. New postcolonial african states created with fundamental flaws 1/14/16 Lecture Two Realism and Liberalism Ch 3 1. Cold War: 19451991 a. distrust of ideology + vying for hegemony i. USUSSR arms race ii. NATO v. warsaw pact (an alliance that said just in case something happens, Russia would be there) b. US propaganda to promote capitalism c. soviet propaganda to promote communism d. 1962 cuban missile crisis e. arms race: example of security dilemma? i. as one state increases its military, the other matches, and so forth ii. mutually assured destruction f. Detente= decrease in tensions between US and USSR i. 1968 NPT Nuclear Non proliferation treaty ii. No WWIII iii. but Cold war was cold because we never actually fought but lived in fear, except there was not a quite peaceful experience in korea 1. proxy wars two superpowers back different sides of smaller wars g. 1989: berlin wall falls families reconnect after 30 years h. soviets take on “glasnot” (opening) and “perestroika” (reform) i. 1991: USSR breaks apart 2. effects of end of the cold war a. narrative of “winning” b. political freedom for former soviet satellite states c. new european security architecture (EU and NATO) d. conflicts become primarily INTRASTATE i. intra within the state ii. civil wars iii. because people in the state realize how destructive bombs can be, step back from interstate wars e. international intervention proliferates f. Russians are hypernationalist now because US said we were big winners so russia is a loser and that’s why they hate us 3. IR Theory a. theory i. helps describe and explain events ii. can be used to predict future actions b. dominant theories i. realism and liberalism 4. realism a. human nature Hobbes, Leviathon, idea that people need to be controlled by social contract. Human nature is naturally bad, need structure b. state sovereignty c. power (according to realists?) i. increase power of state at all costs d. therefore, a state leader’s job is to e. system is anarchic 5. realism in action a. states aim to survive because of anarchy absence of power i. survival as precondition to obtaining power ii. can lead to “moral relativism” 1. if all states do what they think is morally right for them, it means there’s not a constant understanding of what behaviors should be iii. selfhelp leads to problems concerning broader collective action problems 6. liberalism a. human nature has potential for good b. state sovereignty recognize that states are still critical actor c. cooperation among states d. fueled by enlightenment, 15th century trade … and Kantian desire to end war
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