Political Science 41A Intro to International Relations Week Three Notes
Political Science 41A Intro to International Relations Week Three Notes Pol Sci 41A
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joyce Nguy on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pol Sci 41A at University of California - Irvine taught by HARDT, H in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see INTRO INTL RELATNS in Political Science at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
1/19/16 PS 41A Week Three Global Actors and Sovereignty 1. student services 2 room 110 ( STUDY ABROAD ) 2. clarifying the “state” a. we know… i. it is the most important actor in the modern international system ii. the concept of state is central to all relationships in global politics iii. foreign policy is the process by which the system of states interacts 1. tries to influence behavior of other states b. be able to define… and give examples i. government 1. a form of bureaucracy, that is determining how collective goods or bads in a given territory 2. security, national security companies don’t do that, but governments do. Immigration, antiterrorism, ii. nation 1. a group of people that share an identity JUST TALKING ABOUT THE PEOPLE 2. may or may not have a legally defined territory 3. Ex: Taiwan is a disputed nation some identify themselves as ethnically Chinese iii. state 1. four characteristics a. sovereignty autonomy, makes reference to the monopoly over the use of force, recognition b. population c. government d. territory distinction between state and nation. territory not disputed in the state iv. nationstate 1. territory where people have a shared common identity 3. sovereignty and the state system a. recall 1648 westphalian system b. how has globalization affected the state system? i. not acceptable to go and colonize other countries states are obligated to respect the sovereignty of other states ii. controlling their borders easier to connect supply and demand (drug trafficking) iii. nontraditional security threats human trafficking iv. it’s harder for states to maintain an “american” identity idea of identity changes when you’re able to move across borders v. proliferation of NGOS c. what about nationalism? i. it’s harder for states to maintain an “american” identity idea of identity changes when you’re able to move across borders ii. d. nontraditional vs traditional security threat i. traditional security threat that is being posed by another state 1. ex: Iran, poses threat by nuclear weapon development ii. nontraditional 1. not the state itself posing that threat a. human trafficking b. organized crime 4. states and foreign policy a. foreign policy articulation of national interests and the means chosen to secure those interests i. implementing b. so...what is a “national interest” i. the _material interest (tangible, promoting trade, financial, energy, oil)__ and _ideational (derived from idea,intangible, promoting of values like democracy, human rights, liberty, capitalism, privatization)__ goals of nationstate ii. and result of Putnam’s twolevel game 1. there’s an international level and domestic level. 2. has to balance for the interest of the american people (domestic) while simultaneously balancing the interests of the whole world (international level) 1/21/16 Lecture 2 1. liberalism a. human nature? maybe humans are able to change b. state sovereignty states are main actors c. cooperation among states cooperation among states is possible d. fueled by enlightenment, 15th century trade 2. liberalism in action a. liberal state has i. human rights ii. parliamentary democracy iii. free market economy (capitalism) b. in relations with other states, liberal internationalism means… i. states are supportive of joining international institutions ii. free trade export and import of goods and services minimize barriers. 1. if we trade a lot, (interdependence on other economies), doing so increases our chances of having sustainable peaceful relations 3. leading critical theories a. marxism i. view that social, political, and economic world should be analyzed a s a whole 1. critical theory: a. explained how world developed while critiquing its defects b. IR cannot be understood without thinking about that social context ii. goal 1. classless and stateless society iii. capitalism is 1. system of production for sale on a market for profit on the basis of the individual 2. because of this class structure, there are those who own and are the workers, certain individuals are for sale and the entire system is set up to be constantly extracting profit iv. communist manifesto (1848) 1. “the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles” 2. Mao, Russia follow the GOAL for the workers to have a revolution and to rise up b. the essential marxism i. economic development is the motor of history 1. technological advancements changes previous relations in production industrial revolution 2. marx expected this transformation in advanced industrial societies a. that this would dominate ii. the key role of class in marxist analysis 1. proletariat vs bourgeoisie 2. workers vs owners of means of production iii. effects of globalization? 1. global.. iv. prescription? c. constructivism i. the actions and words of people make society/state ii. society, in turn, shapes our actions and words and creates … rules 1. rules ex: respect each other’s soveriegnty iii. the state is really the product of the actions and rules of people that they follow iv. intersubjective looking social relations within the global community v. critiques the emphasis of the state vi. what really matters is social context actions and words of people make society vii. ex: embassy there’s no rule that the state has to have embassies. unspoken rule. viii. behavior is shaped by social context ix. less emphasis on state, more emphasis on the individual 1. state itself is a social construction x. state’s power within a system based on 2 factors 1. material factors a. control of resources 2. discursive power a. power based on knowledge and the control of language and ideas within a society b. to use language (discourse) to send out a message 3. anarchy is what states make of it a. totally different than realists and liberalists absence of rules b. constructivists say there ARE rules, it’s just socially constructed i. obama’s anarchy is different than bush’s anarchy because it’s based on the context of the state and state leaders xi. meanings of key terms are fixed through politics 1. one person’s terrorist is the other person’s freedom fighter xii. once these meanings are fixed they have consequences for the ability of people to determine their fates 1. if you choose not to call it a genocide, you are not legally obligated to intervene 2. waterboarding is it torture? because if it is, US is engaged in torture. we signed international agreements that we weren’t going to torture people 3. words itself hold power xiii. constructivists have offered two additions to this view of power: 1. ideational or discursive 2. your way of thinking is “the norm” d. constructivism and change i. actors try to change norms that shape: 1. state identity 2. state interests ii. how do constructivists explain world order? 4. feminist IR theory a. “gender” social construction of the difference between “men” and “women” b. explain: gender v. sex i. sex biologically how you are born, gender is socially constructed you decide what gender you are 1. gender affects world politics and 2. world politics affect gender c. varieties of feminist theories liberal, socialist/marxist, standpoint, postmodern, postcolonial
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