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by: Samuel Rendon
Samuel Rendon
GPA 3.2
Politics of the Middle East
Ross Harrison

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About this Document

Ross Harrison lecture on the Egyptian political history from 1798-present.
Politics of the Middle East
Ross Harrison
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samuel Rendon on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PS 1351 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Ross Harrison in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Politics of the Middle East in Political Science at University of Pittsburgh.


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Date Created: 02/06/15
Egypt 1 Four pillars of the Middle East according to Harrison A Egypt Maybe in the future B Saudi Arabia C Iran D Turkey 11 What do we know about Egypt today A War on Terror in the Sinai B El Sisi is present autocrat in that country C After Mubarak fell 1 There was a time where the military presided for a time before an election 2 Mohammed Morsi was elected Muslim Brotherhood a Overthrown by secular and right leaning opposition through the military b Because he governed from a very narrow base croneyism and then tried to minimize the military c Why no uprising against El Sisi 1 Role of the military and the belief that authoritarianism may be able to make the right economic moves III Nationalist Egypt A When you watched Tahrir Square in the Arab Spring of 2011 1 You saw Egyptian nationalism a Pride in being Egyptian b Taking control of what they think belongs to them 1 Tahrir Square like protest reguires a sense of community IV Pre Nationalist Egypt Let s start with 1798 A Egypt was part of the Ottoman Empire 1 Ottomans had very loose control mechanisms 2 Considered a backwater by the Ottomans a Egypt by 1798 by any standards would not be considered a great civilization as it was thousands of years ago b Ottomans provided no defenses 3 Napoleon comes to Alexandria in 1798 a He finds horrible conditions b No opposition C He finds that the elite of society are not Egyptian 1 They were of Turkish descent and spoke Turkish d Napoleon felt enlightened 1 Had some respect for Islam 2 Wanted to improve the conditions for the local elite 3 Lingua Franca of these schools was obviouslyFrench e Then Napoleon leaves 4 British come a few year later a Pretty much encounter the same circumstances b Political Power 1 Britain had about 100 political awareness compared to Egypt s 1 2 2 British only had to co opt the Egyptian elites to gain control c What do the Ottomans do 1 They pluck an Albanian military fight Muhammad Ali 2 They send him to Egypt to Mthe army It has to be nationalist to compete with the British nation a You have to use normative active symbols and utilitarian control mechanisms to foster nationalism b You have to educate the Egyptians i S o the MILITARY becomes the vanguard of Egyptian nationalism a T hey are the first instrument of nation building in Egypt c Why not try to imbue them with an Ottoman nationalism i o utilitarian connection to the Ottomans 3 After about 40 years they get to about 200000 well trained soldiers a Beyon d the military the mosques played a very important role as an anti colonial force b Idea was that the mosque were almost uncompromisingly against colonial rule 4 Muhammad Ali also reinforces many of the schools that the French built and B Ishmail started to create an Egyptian identity a This was not the sultan s plan b Muha mmad Ali was the father of Egyptian nationalismeven though he himself was Albanian c Even the last kings of Egypt were descendants of him d He dies and his kidsgrandkids take over Grandson of Muhammad Ali a Believed that Egypt needed a development modelthat model was France b He decides to modernize the country by creating infrastructure 1 Suez Canal is built under Ishmael 2 Many buildings and most of infrastructure built by Ishmail c How does a poor country do that 1 He borrows from Francemostly Britain and goes into debt 2 Gives the Europeans very strong leverage a Ishmail is then viewed as acting irresponsibly 3 What do the British do a They go to Constantinople and give the Sultan an ultimatum to depose Ishmail i T hey wanted his brother Tufiq to be in power 21 S ultan didn t have a whole lot of choice at this point and does this b Mosqu es respond by issuing a fatwa to depose Tafic and re impose Ishmail C Then there is a military uprising led by Colonel Arabi Urabi basically opposing this decision i A gainarmy as a nationalist instrument ii A 11 this only after about 80 years after Napoleon iii B ritish French blockade and shelling of Alexandria in 1882British prevail and Egypt becomes a British protectorate d Nation alism starts with one institutionbut then it broadens V British Rule A From 1882 1914 the British basically directly run Egypt B What does that do to Egyptian nationalism 1 There s nothing that stimulates nationalism like a very omnipresent other 2 British rule has the unintended consequence of galvanizing the country 3 Wafd party a First and most important mass base party in the Arab world 1 Led by a man named Saad Zaghlul well known in Egypt hardly in the West a He wants to be part of the delegation at Versailles because that conference oversees the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire b All he wants is to be part of the delegation c Versail les makes Egypt a League of Nations Mandate 2 The British portrayed this guy as a rabble rouser troublemaker a So they eXile him to the island of Malta rather than Paris b buuuut they failed to perceive his nationalism i H is political position improved in eXile and eventually were forced to release him C British handling of Saad Zaghlul galvanized the opposition 1 It was constructive in the sense that it led to unified opinion that British rule had to end 2 It catalyzed nationalism and further political awareness D 1922 l Nationalist forces are putting pressure on the British a British are starting to feel the costs of direct rulewhich are increasing 2 The British buckle a They create an independence b Term at the time was Independence but 1 British kept Suez Canal 2 Disputes between foreign and local interestsBritain has control 3 Britain controlled foreign policy a more like autonomy than independence 4 Basically the British maintained control E Wafd party went in and out of popularity 1 This party had extraordinary amounts of legitimacy a But now they are presiding of a government that is still subordinate to British interests b Reduces legitimacy c Indirect rule is politically corrosive 1 It creates a split between the nationalists which causes the youth to look elsewhere 2 Ikhwan Society of the Muslim Brothers a Musli m Brotherhood later on b The Wafd had to compromise just by virtue of the fact that they were in power c They become a political vehicle with which to oppose the British now that the Wafd cannot VI British after WWII A Create a military alliance with the Egyptians after actual independence 1 Military is still behind the scenes as a tool of nationalsim 2 This is about 130 years after Muhammad Ali 3 1948 a Creation of Israel b First Arab Israeli War very next day 1 British left the Israeli decision in the hands of the UN c Strengthens certains cells of the military d Free Officers 1 Cell within the Egyptian military a The leadership of this cell was in part GamalAbdulNasser 2 Military coup in 1952 a Revolu tionary command council of which Nasser was vice presidenteventually outmaneuvers the President Naguib and then becomes president b Nasser has a problem i D idn t build a base of support ii C ame to power as result of coup VII Nasser A What are his options 1 Has to build a base of support a He initially tries to co opt the Ikhwan b Plumber from the brotherhood tried to assassinate Nasser in Alexandria c So he tries a new strategy by isolating the 25 politically aware population 1 Outlaws the brotherhood d He needs a tool to reach out to the less politically aware part of the population 1 Creates his own political party Liberation Rally Party Eventually the Arab Socialist Union Party a He built party offices in the countryside 2 Modernization is hitting the country at the same time a Used radio very effectively 2 Populist Authoritarian Leader a Used coercion at the 25 but what symbols did he use for the rest 1 He tapped into a different layer of political identity a That was Arab Nationalism i M ost Arab countries are gaining independence at this point and his message was strength through unity ii e believed that there was a threat of the British and French coming back and he was also concerned about Cold War superpowers iii T his was an instrument for the creation of political power iv A rab nationalism was now led by Egypt which further stimulated the layer of Egyptian nationalism as well b Nasser also implemented socialist policies c He masterfully turns a coup into a revolution ingenious 1 That revolutionary fervor spills out through the rest of the Arab world 3 Nasser did not create Arab nationalism a Originally it was Christian Arabs b Then it was the Ba ath party which was an intellectual party c Nasser just popularized Arab Nationalism B Foreign policy I Pushed for the non aligned movement 2 He was determined not to let Egypt fall under a new form of colonialism by the superpowers 3 US was primarily concerned with the USSR and Nasser was primarily concerned with Israel and Britain 4 US sent an emissary Kermit Roosevelt CIA to Egypt who saw the country as a wonderful Cold War asset a Nasser was suppressing all political parties Including Communists 1 Nationalism creates power b What better ally to have 1 So this emissary tries to strike a deal with Nasser on the grounds that the USSR threatens Egypt and the Middle East a Kermit proposes a deal to sell arms to Egypt on the condition that abuse for Israel be reduced to the verbal 2 Israel was viewed as a new way for the West to control the Arab world a Arab nationalism and this agreement do not compute 3 Nasser obviously rejects the offer 4 Kermit Roosevelt then comes through with 3 million to bribe Nasser a Nasser took the money but didn t accept the bribe 5 US tries one more time a Nasser wanted to build a dam in Aswan to prevent the ooding of the Nile b He looks to the US for the money c US again tries to make anti USSR alliance a precondition 6 InsteadNasser nationalized the Suez Canal VIII Nassernalism A Extremely popular decision 1 Less vestige of British control 2 Money from the revenues funded Nasser s development projects B British are PISSED 1 Joint British French attack plan against the Suez Canal area to retake the canal 2 The Israelis were part of the plan but the idea was that they would come in later as re exive support 3 But the US USSR and UN force the hand of the British and French and they have to leave C Ohhhh if Nasser wasn t popular before this 1 he sure af is now 2 He is demonstrating to Arabs that they can take control of their own destiny through secular nationalist symbols D Nasser gets involved in a war in Yemen 1 Drains the coffers of Egypt Nasser s Vietnam 2 Supports the creation of the PLO Palestinian Liberation Organization under Yasser Arafat 3 He starts poking at the remaining monarchies in the region 4 His brand inherently challenges traditionalism which he views as holding them back 5 Nasser confronts the Saudis in ways that are similar to Iran now E Everything then implodes l Nasser takes over Syria creating a 3 year unified state a Israel is in between Egypt and Syria b Sent Israel alarm bells ringing 2 Nasser starts to overplay his hand closes the Suez Canal to Israel 3 He signals to the Israelis that war is imminent a 1967 War SiX Day War b Israel Wins 1 Israel preemptively attacks Egypt and Syria taking air superiority by destroying the EgyptianSyrian grounded air forces in a day 2 Nasser inadvertently eXpands Israeli territory a Israelis take Sinai West Bank Golan Heights and Gaza 3 Arab nationalist experiment implodes IX Anwar Sadat A Nasser is assassinated B Anwar Sadat his VP comes to power C Sadat believes two things 1 He believes that Israeli sense of invincibility would delude them 2 Regaining dignity was more important than land 3 They planned a surprise attack on Yom Kippur D Israeli intelligence ignored warnings E Vicious battles in the Sinai resulted in the status quo by the end of the war F Egyptians celebrated it as a victory 1 They would not have one without dramatic US support 2 They got their dignity back and the Israelis lost their sense of invincibility G Sadat becomes immensely popular after the Yom Kippur War 1 He was even able to get the Saudis behind him H 1977 l Sadat makes a historic trip to Israel to speak in front of Parliament a Sadat s visit leads to Peace Accords b Book recommendation 13 Days in Camp David c It was designed to strike a deal that Israel would return the West Bank and the Gaza Strip I Sadat was assassinated 1 He had all the leverage in the world a It is seen that he sold out b There is a belief that he could have used his power to create an overarching peace c He also became extremely autocratic internally 1 Imprisoned the Coptic Pope


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