Chapter 1 notes for anatomy and physiology
Chapter 1 notes for anatomy and physiology Anatomy and Physiology
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Popular in Science
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tawnya diem on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anatomy and Physiology at Youngstown State University taught by Dr. Arvin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Science in Science at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
The Scope OfAnatomy & Physiology A. Anatomy 1. Scientific discipline that investigates the body’s structure, the study of the bodies form. First studied through dissection. a. Subdisciplines: Gross, Surface, Developmental, Embryology, Cytology, Histology. b. Methods of Exam: Inspection, Palpation,Auscultation, Percussion, Dissection, Exploratory Surgery, Medical Imaging. 2. Gross or Macroscopic: Structures examined without a microscope. a. Regional: Studied area by area. b. Systemic: Studied system by system. c. Surface: External form as it relates to deeper structures. 3. Microscopic: Structures seen with the microscope. a. Cytology: Cellular anatomy. b. Histology: Study of tissues. B. Physiology: 1. Scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things. 2. Reveals dynamic nature of living things, to understand the underlying processes that maintain the organism and contribute to homeostasis. Much information has been gained through comparative physiology. 3. Consider operations of specific organ systems. a. Cell Physiology: Examines processes in cells. b. Neurophysiology: Focuses on the nervous system. c. Endocrinology: Physiology of hormones. 4. Most medical related fields utilize a combination of bothA& P. a. Pathophysiology: Medical science of disease examining abnormal structural and functional changes seen with disease. Scientific Method A. Inductive Method: 1. Promoted by Francis Bacon, make numerous observations till confident in drawing generalizations, so predictions can be made. a. What is Proof: Nothing can be proved beyond all doubt. B. Hypothetico-Deductive Method: 1. Hypothesis: Educated speculation or possible answer to a question. a. Consistent with what is known and can be falsified. C. Experimental Design: blind), statistical testing.ze, controls, psychosomatic effects (placebo), experimental bias (double D. Peer Review: Critical evaluation by other experts in the specific field. E. Facts, Laws and Theories: 1. Facts: Can be independently verified. 2. Laws: Generalizations about the predictable ways matter and energy will behave. 3. Theories: Statements that explain something based on facts, laws and confirmed hypothesis. Human Origins andAdaptations A. Evolution, Selection, andAdaptation: 1. Evolution: Is a change in the genetic composition of a population of a particular organism. 2. Natural Selection: Some members of a species have hereditary advantages. a. Selection Pressures: Natural forces like climate, disease, competition, predators, availability of food. 3.Adaptations: Features of an organism that change due to selection pressures. B. Life In Trees: 1. We belong to the order of mammals called primates, arboreal environment, opposable thumbs, leads to prehensile hands, stereoscopic vision (depth perception). C. Walking Upright: 1. Bipedalism: Provided greater protection when ground dwelling began, Homo sapien is end result of this adaption. Human Structure A. Hierarchy of Complexity: 1.Atoms: Small particles of matter with unique chemical identities. a. EssentialAtoms: C, H, O, N, P, Ca, K, S 2. Molecules: Made from 2 or more atoms in specific configurations. come together to form the cells.t of life, nothing smaller is alive. Made form organelles which then 4. Tissues: Made of different cell types combined together to do a specific job. Four basic types are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous. 5. Organs: Two or more tissue types working together to do one or more functions. 6. Organ Systems: Group of organs, working together as a unit performing common functions. 7. Organism:Any single, complete living thing considered as a whole, one cell bacteria up to us. B.Anatomical Variation: Bodies differ from each other, both externally and internally. Human Function A. Characteristics of Life: 1. Organization: Condition in which there are specific relationships and functions, living things are highly organized, spend considerable energy to maintain, disruption of this can lead to disease and death. 2. Cellular Composition: Living matter is always compartmentalized into into one or more cells. 3. Metabolism: All the chemical reactions of the body (catabolism & anabolism), sum of all internal chemical change. 4. Responsiveness: Ability to sense changes and react to stimuli. 5. Movement: Within cells up to the entire organism. tissues or increases in the size of the organism. increases in the material around them or increases in 7. Development: Changes in form or function over time, from fertilization to death. a. Differentiation: Change in cell structure and function from general to more specific. b. Morphogenesis: Change in the shape of cells, tissues, organs and higher. 8. Reproduction: Formation of new cells and/or new organisms, allows the species to continue, passing on of genetic information. 9. Evolution: Living things exhibit genetic change from generation to generation, due to mutations. B. Physiological Variation: Differences from individual to individual, factors like age, sex, weight, diet, activity, environment, impact physiology. C. Homeostasis and Negative Feedback: Process where the body detects changes to its internal environment, activates mechanisms and makes changes to maintain a relatively stable internal environment. 1. Dynamic Equilibrium: Best describes our internal environment. a. Set Point:Average value around which the body tries to maintain physiological processes. 2. Negative Feedback: Most systems use this mechanism, reverses a change in a controlled condition, deviations from a set point are made smaller by changes that bring the body back towards normal. The effect is always in opposition to the stimuli. Refereed to as feedback loops. a. Components: Receptor, integrating (control) center and an effector. 3. Positive Feedback: Self amplifying cycle. Deviations from a set point are increased by the action of the effectors creating a change in the same direction as the original stimulus, stimulus is reinforced examples include uterine contractions, blood clotting, protein digestion and generation of nerve impulses. B. Homeostatic Imbalances: Occur when there is a loss of the ability to maintain homeostasis by one or more of the bodies control mechanisms. 1. Disorder:Abnormality of structure or function. 2. Disease: More specific set of recognizable signs and symptoms, a disease may be local or systemic in its affects. a. Symptoms:Are subjective changes in body functions that can not be seen or directly measured by the observer. b. Signs: Either anatomical (rash) or physiological(elevated temperature) are changes that can be observed and/or measured by the observer. The Language of Medicine combining vowels, prefixes and suffixes).nguage, Greek and Latin roots. Word parts (root/stem, B. Body Positions:Anew way to describe things. 1.Anatomical Position: Body erect, face forward, feet on floor, palms forward. 2. Other Body Positions: Prone, supine, L & R lateral recumbent etc. subdivided. Names: Head, neck, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs.All of these major regions can be 4. Directional Terms:Are words that describe the position of one body part as it relates to another. a. Superior vs Inferior f. Cephalic vs Caudal b.Anterior vs Posterior g. Ventral vs Dorsal c. Medial vs Lateral h. Ipsilateral vs contralateral d. Proximal vs Distal i. Intermediate e. Superficial vs Deepj. Rostral C. Planes and Sections:Anew way to see things. 1. Planes: Imaginary flat surfaces passing through the body. a. Sagittal: Vertical plane, divides body into R & L sides. b. Midsagittal/Median: Divides body into equal R & L sides. c. Transverse Horizontal: Divides body into superior/inferior parts. d. Frontal or Coronal: Divides body into anterior/posterior portions. 2. Sections: One flat surface of a three-dimensional structure. a. Cross Section: Is at a right angle to the long axis of the structure. b. Oblique Section: Is at any other angle to the long axis of the body. D. Body Regions: Understanding external anatomical landmarks is important for preforming physical exams and clinical procedures. 1.Axial Region: Contains the head, neck and trunk (thoracic & abdominal).Abdominal can be divided into 4 quadrants or 9 smaller regions. 2.Appendicular Region: Contains the upper and lower extremities. a. Upper:Arm (brachial), forearm (antebrachial), wrist (carpal), hand (manual), fingers (digits). b. Lower: Thigh (femoral), leg (crural), ankle (tarsal), foot (pedal), toes (digits). E. Body Cavities and Membranes: cord, formed by the vertebrae. The two are continuous and lined by the meninges.s, contains the spinal 2. Thoracic: Divided by mediastinum, diaphragm separates it from the abdominopelvic cavity. a. Pleural: Surrounds each lung, formed by a serous membrane the pleura (visceral and parietal between is pleural fluid). b. Pericardial: Surrounds heart, formed by a serous membrane the pericardium (visceral and parietal between is pericardial fluid). c. Mediastinum: Central part of thoracic cavity, between the lungs. 3.Abdominal: Enclosed mainly by muscle, contains abdominal organs. a. Peritoneum: Lines cavity and covers organs, serous membrane (visceral and parietal between is peritoneal fluid). b. Retroperitoneal Space: Just anterior to the posterior body wall, contains the kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands, most of the pancreas, and abdominal portions of the aorta and the inferior vena cava. c. Membranes: Dorsal mesentery (suspends intestines from dorsal abdominal wall), mesocolon (dorsal mesentary of colon), ventral mesentary (extends toward anterior abdominal wall), greater and lesser omentum are extensions of the ventral mesentary. 4. Pelvic: Enclosed by pelvic bones, contains primarily urinary & reproductive structures. Additional Material Chapter 1 Insight1.1 Vestiges of Human Evolution Insight 1.2 Situs Inversus & Other UnusualAnatomy Insight 1.4 Obscure Word Origins Insight 1.5 Medical Imaging
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