Ancient- 1500 History
Ancient- 1500 History HIST 170
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Friedrichsen on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 170 at Colorado State University taught by Derek Everett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see World History, Ancient-1500 in History at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Ancient 1500 History The Beginning… The first man was the Homo Sapiens. o They are referred to as “Thinking Man.” o They were thought to have migrated outwards from Africa. o And they were “huntergatherers.” “Huntergatherer” Nomadic people who follow their food source. They never stay in one place, so they are unlikely to create settlements. o Because they are huntergatherers they begin out migration from Africa. Website: http://madisonhistory2014x.weebly.com/question2.html Paleolithic Era Majority of human evolution is developed in this era. Time period: C. 100K10K Y.A. Estimated population: approx. 100,000 Neolithic Era Time period: C. 10K Y.A. Humans begin to shape their own environment instead of their environment controlling them. o For example, people began to farm and stay in one place instead of migrating to where their food migrated. This period begins agricultural endeavors. Agriculture: Sedentism: no longer migrating with their food; begin to stay in one place in order to farm or tend to land. o All humans begin their shift to sedentary life within approx. 200400 years of each other. o Because humans are not designed to stay in one place, sedentism begins causing health problem. Aka the lack of exercise from constantly being on the go causes humans to become fatter and health diseases such as heart disease. An idea of private property is formed. Wanting to own a piece of land in order to own the yields of the land as well. o Because they begin farming their food, food becomes less scarce and population begins to steadily increase. Because people begin owning things, property for example, social regulation is needed to create laws and rules to abide by. Labor specialization: Essential means people begin to have jobs concentrated in one area. For example: Farming, carpentry, or religion. o Begin to domesticate livestock Civilization: (definition in terms of this class) large group of people in a concentrated area. o Large groups of people need and therefore lead to social regulation causing the onset of government systems. o Civilizations begin creating their own cultures. Cultures: can include art, music, rules, language, etc… o As civilizations grow, job specialization can also grow. More people equals less farmers because there are enough farmers to provide for all. So the rest of the society can begin specializing in other trades to advance the society. Importance of Rivers Need stable and reliable fresh water sources o People begin living along the rivers. Rivers are used for communication and transportation. They were likely Ancient highways. Common Traits Among Civilizations Civilizations begin learning how their environment works o What causes sickness and how to evade sickness. o And where things have the potential to grow the best. Civilizations began religious systems. o Animals become the messengers of the gods. o Each god represents a vital part of ancient life. For example: the god of water or the god of crop yield. o Mostly they create polytheistic religions because they believe putting all your eggs in one basket with one god is scary. Judaism will be the first monotheistic religion. Pastoralists People who remain nomads on the borders of sedentary life. They are people who are dependent on animals for food and transportation, but do not create farmers or stay in one place. From time to time they will invade sedentary settlements for their resources. o They are so easily able to raid these settlements because they are military based for their own protection. o Occasionally pastoralists will raid sedentary life and choose to stay in their village and clam it as their own. All in all, living a pastoralist life is a “less sure existence” or more “desperate” of a life. Metal and Mankind Copper: Easy to find, easy to mold, aesthetically pleasing. o Because copper is a soft medal it is easily molded making it easy to work with. o In each civilization it is usually the first medal to be worked with. o But the softness of this medal makes it not a good candidate for weapons or building. Bronze: Stronger than copper, but harder to make. o Bronze is used when tin is mixed with copper making it a difficult metal to make. Iron: Easy to find, stronger than copper, but not aesthetically pleasing. In 1500 BC technology and culture shifted simultaneously. o Violence increased, whether it is due to the creating of weapons with this new found iron or another reason. o Militarization also increases. o Before this point gender roles were equal, but after metal working men became superior to women. The Natufians Almost the first group of people to cross the civilization thresh hold. They were a huntergatherer society in the Mediterranean area. o In the Mediterranean area there were a lot of plants and animals. This region was thought to be very lush and fertile. o Because the area was lush there was probably plenty of food. Their society therefore didn’t have to concern themselves with foraging for food and could have other hobbies. o There were small settlements around this area and in the settlements there were cultural components such as art. Time period: 11,000 BC Their society was thought to be wiped out by a flood that began in today’s Canada and wiped down through North America and into the ocean. The cold water from the flood threw off an ocean current that supported the Mediterranean area causing their habitat to no longer be able to support a society. From the Mediterranean to Mesopotamia The “fertile crescent” arises where the Natufians used to live. Fertile Crescent: a stretch of land with rich soil than can easily grow crops and sustain people. This area is where the real first recognized civilization will begin. Website: http://www.mrdowling.com/603mesopotamia.html Sumerian Civilization A civilization of farmers that create city states along the river. o Rivers become starting points for civilizations because the easily sustain life. For example: livestock, plants, and humans. In Sumeria there is less violence. Sumeria will last for thousands of years. Sumeria developed a lot of firsts for a civilization. o They were the first to create large cities of approx. 100,000 people. o They developed the wheel and had drawn animals. o They had a written language called cuneiform They wrote of clay tablets and then baked the tablets. This formed documentation of stories and business records. A couple of years ago there were approx. 150,000 clay cuneiform tablets left, but after unrest in the middle east that number has gone down. o They had a math system with units of sixty. Culture in Ancient Sumer They began writing for entertainment. They had a uniformed religion in buildings called ziggurats. Ziggurats: ancient buildings important to the worship of gods. Website: http://www.bible archaeology.info/tower_babel.htm By the size and intricacy of this ziggurat it can be told that religion is a big deal to the Sumerian people. Sumerian Religion is based on fear. o They want to keep their gods happy through worship and sacrifice. Time period: 5,000BC2,300BC In 2,300BC the pastoralists invade Sumer. Semitic Pastoralists The next couple of rulers in Sumeria will be the Akkadians and the Amorites. The Akkadians: o Take over the Sumerian in 2,300BC o They live in the current cities in Sumeria and rule their people o They get taken over by the Amorites. The Amorites: o They take charge in 2,100BC o Instead of living in Sumeria’s current cities they make a new city to rule over all of the other cities. This city will be called Babylon.