Week 3 Notes
Popular in Introduction to Media and Culture
Popular in Film
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Schaefer on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MFJS 2210 at University of Denver taught by Rachael Liberman in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Media and Culture in Film at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
January 20th, 2016 Advertising: Trends in Film 1. Advertisements before film trailers 2. Product placement (also in tv, video games, etc.) 3. Brand integration (ex. The Great Gatsby, 2013, and Brooks Brothers, Prada, Tiffany, etc.) a. Film promoted brand partners, brand partners invested in the production of the film (costumes $2M off film’s budget) Advertising: Trends in Journalism Due to shift to advertisersupported content and business model: 1. News purveyors began avoiding controversy 2. More features were added (sports, fashion) to attract advertisers 3. Became advocates for businessrelated events, people, etc. 4. Selfcensorship among journalists 5. Production of news for those who are welloff Viral Marketing & Native Advertising Old Spice and Buzzfeed examples Chapter 3: Key Questions What are the major government regulations on media industries? Do regulations apply the same to all media? What are the arguments for and against regulating in the “public interest”? What are political forces other than government that affect media? Political Environment & Regulaton Governments: ORGANIZING structures that can CONSTRAIN media production LIMITATION on free speech; IMPACT on economic interests Is democracy necessarily better? Dynamics of individual countries: role of government, culture, history, economic interests, economic climate, etc. Reporters without Borders Top 3: Finland, Norway, Denmark United States: #49 Bottom 3: Turkmenistan, North Korea, Eritrea Methodology: 180 countries evaluated through a questionnaire sent to NGOs, activists, journalists. Finland: Government & Media Why did they rank so high? What is their strategy for freedom? Has headed the index since 2008 Defamation is punishable by imprisonment in certain circumstances (selfcensorship?) Three companies own all the national media; high media pluralism despite concentrate ownership Media are selfregulated through the Council for Mass Media (it’s not the government) Finland Council for Mass Media: Basic Agreement Established in 1968: Selfregulation “The task of the Council for Mass Media is to cultivate responsible freedom in regard to the mass media as well as provide support for good journalistic practice…” Violations are brought to attention of CMM and they initiate an investigation, proceed with an independent resolution. European Model of Regulation 1. Emphasized public service 2. Nationalized 3. Politicized 4. Noncommercial (commercial interests NOT dominant!) 1922 British Broadcasting System if the FIRST European state media monopoly system Government are invested in PUBLIC broadcast media Reflection: US ranking What factors contribute to the low US ranking? What factors are associated with freedom and support for journalists? How do commercial interests play into this? Regulation Debates: Freedom vs. Public Interest First Amendment = Government should have a “handsoff approach” to media environment Section 8, Article 1: Congress can intervene on account of the “public interest” (Issue with definition too broad!) Issues: 1. BALANCE: attempting to balance the interest of various groups in the US 2. CHANGE: government cannot write media regulation in stone because technological and economic changes are constantly occurring 3. DIVERSITY: regulation that promotes diversity in programming and services is in the public interest Founders: Freedom of the Press 1. Licensing of the press as a case illegal “prior restraint” 2. Sustained tradition of opposing special taxes on the press 3. Restricted criminal libel suits 4. “Handsoff” approach EXCEPT for “public interest” “All governments develop some policies aimed at regulating and controlling the media because they understand their political and social importance” (Croteau & Hoynes, 2014, p. 71). Example policies:broadcast licensing, copyright enforcement, commercial ownership regulation (antitrust) January 22nd, 2016 Media & Political Structures II (Shadows of Liberty 2012 documentary) The media industry wants regulation but they disagree about WHAT KIND of government regulation should exist. Why would the media industry want regulation? Why would the media industry be critical of regulation? Example: Piracy Radio Support for pirate radio and “microbroadcasters” 1. Provides an alternative voice to the public 2. Liberates the airwaves and breaks corporate media’s stranglehold on the free flow of news, info, and ideas. Support for regulating pirate radio/microbroadcasters 1. Radios use public airwave to reach an audience; airwaves are public spaces and thus need to be regulated 2. Pirate radio signals may interfere with the signal of another station/tower Lessons from Pirate Radio Debates Major ideological differences exist Rules regulating media have been different depending on media companies and mediums Regulation constraining the behavior of one actor benefits others Critical questions What are the forces behind regulation/deregulation? Who benefits from a particular regulation/deregulation? Media Ownership & Regulation Things have changed since the First Amendment! 1. Media technology has changed (direct, fast, digital) 2. Ownership patterns have changed (wealthy own media) Result: Several updates to regulation legislation Trend: deregulation Short History of US Media Regulation (will not be tested on this!) Radio Act of 1912: All large ships must maintain radio contact with ships or shore stations (Commerce Department Bureau of Navigation). Note: No regulatory authority in US before 1912 Radio Act of 1927: Anyone who owned a radio frequency and radio should operate for the “public convenience, interest or necessity.” The Federal Radio Commission was established to regulate radio stations and favored fewer highpowered stations. Communications Act of 1934: Foundation of communication law until 1995. Broadcasters were granted licenses to use the airwaves at no cost, but had a responsibility to use them in the “public interest, convenience, or necessity.” Established the link between news and “public service” and the Federal Communications Commission. Telecommunications Act of 1996: Overhaul of the Communications Act of 1934 due to new digital environment of “convergence.” Promoted competition in the marketplace; eliminated legal barriers (monopoly laws); deregulation Federal Communications Commission (1934) Leadership: Directed by five commissioners who are appointed by the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate FCC Live feed: www.fcc.gov/general/live Chairman: Tom Wheeler Core responsibilities: Developing and implementing regulatory programs Processing applications for licenses and other filings Encouraging the development of innovative services Conducting investigations and analyzing complaints Public safety and homeland security Consumer information and education Children’s Television Act of 1990: Filing with FCC CTA 1990: In 1996, the FCC adopted new rules to strengthen the enforcement of the act (limited commercials, educational programming, etc.) by demanding quarterly reports that are open to the public. Net Neutrality HUGE issue in the regulation/deregulation debates Due to change in technological and ownership landscape Early Internet dialup: OPEN ACCESS Broadband internet (from ISPs): UNEQUAL ACCESS 2010: FCC regulations; cannot deny access, but cable/phone companies can charge for amounts of data downloaded May 2014: FCC chairman Tom Wheeler proposed a plan that would allow companies like AT&T, Comcast, and Verizon to discriminate online and create payforplay “fast lanes.” November 2014: President Obama urges FCC to “keep the Internet Free” (in response to Tom Wheeler’s plan) February 2015: Due to public outcry, Wheeler developed new Net Neutrality rules on Title II of the Telecommunications Act, giving strength back to users. Classified as “common carrier” not “information service”
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