Class Note for NATS 101 at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
39I39ODAY v CA KEY GLOBAL CHANGE ISSUES FOR TODA Y S OLA SS 1 Gases that contribute to the GREENHOUSE EFFECT amp where they come from 2 Intro to some aspects of OZONE as a Greenhouse Gas amp in relation to the Ozone Hole Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL CHANGE WH ERE NATS ARE WE 1 O1 GC HEADED amp WHY 670222quot Change processes Physical Science foundation matteramp energy electromagnetism Thermodynamics laws of motion hmquot aence Science of how it quotInks 398 one Global Change to my quotf9 Things you We seen before that will all come together under this topic LESS DENS E to T4 00 o 39 39 E 391 quoti gg37339figj 1w ratatlon rats Faster rotation rate SHORTWAVES TERRESTRIAL Atmospheric Absorption I I l l 01 1 10 100 1000 Wavelength pm Topic 8 ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE amp CHEMICAL COMPOSITION All about the GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE esp GREENHOUSE GASES Class Notes pp 45 49 also we ll be referring back to p 33 amp 38 occasionally OBJECTIVES To understand the VERTICALSTRUC I URE of the atmosphere amp its relationship to temperature which GASES are in the atmosphere where they are concentrated and why gases at different levels are linked to the Greenhouse Effect amp uzone uepletlon We travel toether asseners in a little spaceship dependent on its vulnerable supplies of air and soil To illustrate the GREENHOUSE EFFECT S U N S U N S U N SOLAR SOLAR EHORMAVES SHORTWAVFj TEERESI39RIAL TERRFSTRIAL msewgv LoNGWAvES A B c B is better than the others but it s still incomplete 0 Modi ed Cartoon of Solar SW amp Terrestrial LW wavelenths of radiation 1 Some Incoming SW radiation from 3232 some atmosphere to Earth SHOKTWAVES wlo belng absorbed TERRESTRIAL 39 LONGWAV 5SomelR 39 radiation is 1 39 7 322333 BUT WHAT ABOUT SW 3f IS IT DEPICTED W CORRECTLY 8 Some IR radiation is emitted from the Earth s surface right out to space through I IR window 4 Some IR radiation is absorbed by GH gases in the atmosphere and emitted back to Earth Radiation flux Wlmzlpm i I I I Sun s peak at 05 pm 1 1 o 001 mL 01 103 Wavelength pm 100 1000 N E this is a logarithmic scale values increase exponentially to the right Wein39s is the law behind this cartoon 1 SOLAR SHORTWAVES TERRESTRIAL LON em39mges 1an In Hilc ililit lHIUHIjIIV A CLOSER LOOK AT SOLAR RADIATION 4 3 T gt in terms of the ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM SOLAR k s Shortwave SW M J wavelengths Long wave LW radiation 395 UV 7 Visible light 44 F l Near IR 37 1 Hhmr 1JIHJVLVL AM unlit wax1 I Jmm39 itquotnfmr r I H Infr 1ri3r I V wnvm Mi 3 39KWElVi w39 We meters 4m Shortwave SOLAR radiation SW UV VIS Near IR Radlauon Intensny amount 439 Shortwave SOLAR radiation TERRESTRIAL radiation sw uv VIS Near IR LW Far IR Solar SW Visitquota wavelengths Uitravxolct tht Visible light 44 UV 7 Near IR 37 Near infrared Far infrared 04 O 7 Waveiength pm Terrestrial Earth radiation wavelengths Far IR with a maximum at 10 pm The eanh 288 K max 16 a 0 5 10 15 20 um Lomgwave Hradiation f How do we correct the de iction of incornin SW SOLAR SHORTWAVES TERRESTRIAL Some SW gets absorbed on its way down to the surface in addition to terrestrial LW IR radiation being absorbed in the 339 7 i G H Earth absorbs SW EEEIDHS DF THE ATHDSF HERE W m ble 5M5 IIIESDSPHEHE WMPHE HE quot 39 39 52 trn i 3 mil i 3m u 39 hm E 1 3 ism 5 quotquot Hi39 arr39F iilFlT Fd I m ram3 39 n9 12 km 55 15 mileSCI EH 5 CPF htfnzllearthguideucsdedulearthnuideldiagramslatmosnherelindexhtml The Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere KEY CONCEPT The atmosphere 3 vertical structure is de ned by CHANGES in the trend of TEMPERATURE with height Altitude km 100 v 1 v I 90 Thermosphere 80 1 quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot 7o Mesopause 1 60 50 40 39 Stratosphere strabpa 39 30 20 r u 1 3 TmPopa gs Troposphere 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 Temperature K b TRy Sally 3 Maroon THermals LMAROON or think up your own Atmospheric Pressure 39 weight of the Atmospher39c air column Pressure amp Mass A liuda km n 1 m oo 8388o8a8 lll Stratosphere i above Vary quotquot quotI quotquot quotquotquot quotquotquot quotEAR 6656quot 180 200 220 240 260 280 30E Temperatureuq 100 99 of mass 39 r l l l I 90 on 0 45 In SGCKump lies below 50 km top of Stratosphere 50 of mass lies below 6 km middle 100quot 10 3 102 101 10 101 102 103 Troposphere Pressurembar Altitudekm 8888838 10 The Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere 100 1 l I Th h Why the zugzags 9 f quot 25fff 80 in the 70 Mesopause 1 E 60 4 temperature I E 50 I 3 he39ht g 40 39 Stratosphere stratoPa 39 30 20 r u 10 Troposphere 0 Tmpopatfs 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 Temperature K b The changes in has 39 n Thermosphere temperature wrth height are the result of gauging Mesosphere drfierentralabsorptron of shortwave SW g quot39 ampongwave LW 3 Whitest t cushion radlatlon T Stratospheren concentrei dozohgotzggrEADow n f bsorthV by atmospheric GASES Eggig gigig g concentrated at various altitudes km quotHEATquot miles uv amp Xra 3 Mr absorbed by N 81 02 was Thermosphere IOL mi Incoming solar 0 Cooler here because SW mostly a sm v i i sw no on inl IR 1 70 quotMIDDLEquot 1quot J warmer clue to lots of UV here 4 which Is absorbed by ozone amp oxygen 29 u r l Stratosphere quotTO SPREAD OUTquot cancentrat d OZONE LayEr Q MIMI Map 5 LIM E I J outgomg 19 terrestrial W LW Far IR 10 TO TURN CHANGEquot m Heated quotfrom belo I39OpOSpherem by terrestrial IR o r e 7 1 1600 400 4quot 90 10 3ll I 30 4D 0039 radnatedfrom I mm 40 40 a 4399 In m 39n Earth 3 surface MM mimit m m mm p 45 TIMMIIIVII K Here39s wny these cnanges In temperature occur quotHEATquot mil UV amp Xrays quot1 absorbed by Na amp 02 S Thermosphere w L mquot w Cooler here because few wavelengths absurbed at this level I an Mesosphere m quotMIDDLEquot I 3 E w 1 an arme due t0 lots 2 of UV here 4 which is absorbed by ozone 8 oxygen m u T Stratosphere quotTO SPREAD OUT consantrat d OZONE Layer 6quot 39 an in quotT ANGEquot m Heated quotfrom belo r0 08 e by terrestrial IR 1 p p 0 7 I 39V V I I 7 4n 4 39 n a 1 4 IJ 1 If I In 420 an 40 a an In an n Tompmlurl Iwnmmmmmmmmm39mmaio my TIMDHIIWI PK KEY On its way to the Earth s qpNCEPZ39 surface several things can happen to incoming SOLAR v RADIATION I TRANSMITTED to Earth s surface ABSORBED by gases dust clouds SCATTERED I REFLECTED Reflected back to space Scattered and indirectly transmitted to Earth s surface Take notes Let s look closer at the incoming shortwave I4SW radiation UV Visible amp near IR EEEIDHE IF THE ATHDSPHERE quot2 7 WWW NILEht HESDSPHEHE iIFnred nai39rg zI quot3 km 339 mile4 I quot912 rn lt5515 mile3 5quot39 EE U F REVIEW The pattern of electromagnetic wavelengths that are absorbed amp emitted by a particular atom or combination of atoms is called its ABSORPTION SPECTRUM or its ABSORPTION CURVE UV 8 CBA 5 E 100 a 02 analog 9 5 0M 39 0 02 03 04 06 08 l 15 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 20 30 a i Wavelengthpm O 5 The Absorption curve for Ozone I oxygen UV Near UV A Near IR p 47 uv rays lt 32 PM UV UV on Visible very harmful to life on Earth arrows 3quot 93 How incoming SOLAR radiation of different wavelengths gets TRANSMITI39ED or ABSORBED Height km by different In Transfer and absarm ion of solar rad3mm on its way to L 3 the Earth 8 a W 015 um A lt 034 gm Ibmlbed by 0 4 N53 UV ma visible 1154 Am 4 A lt 07 pm mummy nearly undimmished except 0 scattering surface 5 Near m 07 mm 5 A lt a pm ansumm sllgmly by 0 and m mnosphm by 140 wpor REVIEW httpzllearthg uideucsdadulaarthg gramsatmospherelindaxmtml 7 m1me Height rm 5n 4 km quot55 quot gr rmr x m campusizian rum um Name mm Evyydav ung 72m El Tramsth o 11 km I v l gv 100 C39SO39C sn c v w 40 me up PC 71 F m Jar a r 5 1F 55 new lNCLASS SELF CHECK TIME 1 Each student gets an index card from the TA today fill out your own card 2 Set up the card this way SemL 94303 3 Write in PEN only no Q1 changing your final answer 3 Q4 4 Grade your cards as you go along Q5 5 BE SURE TO TURN IN CARD FOR ATTENDANCE CREDIT AT END OF CLASS Q 1 The atmospheric layer of the troposphere is important to global climate change because 1 it is the layer closest to the w which is the source of the Earth s energy 2 it is the layer in which temperature INCREASES with altitude in the atmosphere and where most of the atmosphere s ozone occurs 3 it is the layer in which most of our weather heat transfer greenhouse gases occur Q 1 The atmospheric layer of the troposphere is important to global climate change because 1 it is the layer closest to the w which is the source of the Earth s energy 2 it is the layer in which temperature INCREASES with altitude in the atmosphere and where most of the atmosphere s ozone occurs it is the layer in which most of our weather heat transfer amp greenhouse gases occur 02 Here are 3 graphs showing something varying with altitude in the atmosphere Which is which Nmudeikm Ammdaikrn 033885 888 I n I u v u I 1 A water vapor B pressure C temperature 2 A temperature B pressure C ozone concentration 3 A ozone concentration B temperature in the troposphere C temperature in the stratosphere 02 Here are 3 graphs showing something varying with altitude in the atmosphere Which is which Nmudeikm Ammdaikrn 033885 888 I n I u v u I 1 A water vapor B pressure C temperature A temperature B pressure C ozone concentration 3 A ozone concentration B temperature in the troposphere C temperature in the stratosphere Q3 Here is the graph of a atmospheric pressure vs altitude 133 390 39 with parcels of air shown to 33 I x depict the density of the 6039 atmosphere s gases at 3 different altitudes If the air in Parcel X is 20 forced to subside sink to the 3 1 z altitude of Parcel 2 what will 3 393 quotPjbaj 2 3 happen to the air in Parcel X macaw 8 8 it will get more dense and get cooler 2 it will get more dense and warm up 3 it will et more dense and no change in temperature will occur Q3 Here is the graph of a atmospheric pressure vs altitude 133 390 39 with parcels of air shown to 33 I x depict the density of the 6039 atmosphere s gases at 3 different altitudes If the air in Parcel X is 20 forced to subside sink to the 3 1 z altitude of Parcel 2 what will 3 393 quotPjba quot 2 3 happen to the air in Parcel X macaw 8 8 1 it will get more dense and get cooler it will get more dense and warm up 2 3 it will et more dense and no change in temperature will occur ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION Which gases What concentration Which ones are Greenhouse Gases GHG Where do the GHG s come from Which GIIG s are changing in concentration due to HUMAN ACTIVITIES Most Abundant Gases in the Atmosphere Total 9996 Next Most Abundant Gases Greenhouse Gases Other Important Greenhouse Gases I r Greenhouse Gases Absorption by ALL the gases in the atmosphere put toether l I I3 cun e the Whole Atmosphere Outgoing LW thru UVVis thru IR atmospheric atmospheric window Inco ng SW window 00 39 39 Atmos heric Almmphcru mm W cluxus do n 02 03 04 06 08 1 LS 2 Wavelength pm UV Visibie NIR Far IR Review bottom of p 38 39 WATER VAPOR Arrives in atmosphere naturally throuh eva oration amp trans iration Due to unique quantum rotation trequency I120 molecules are excellent absorbers of IR wavelengths of 12 um and longer f N A 19 39 Just listen Q Q This info is in Slow rotation rate Faster rotation rate Table on p 43 Virtuall 100 of IR Ioner than 1 2 pm is absorbed by H20 vapor and CO2 l quot2 Graphs on p 38 Class Notes v 1 WHOLE o r ATMOSPHERE i I I I l a I n l i F I T l l i I I 02 03 0 4 05 06 08 1 15 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 7 IR at12pm 1 2 pm close to the radiation wavelength of 10 pm at which most of Earth s terrestrial absorbed radiation is emitted Just listen WATER VAPOR cont H20 has variable concentration and residence time in the atmosphere derendln on location and atmospheric circulation Blue wettest climates lots of humidity amp water vapor Yellow driest climates Ian atmospheric water quotPquot Averaza Annual anf ll Justlisten Altitude km Q4 Why is the H20 concentration so much higher in the Tropics than at the Poles 1m 100 i so 90 90 Thennosphere 3 80 m 39 5 Temperature vs 70 quot A 70 1 Water Va or 50 E 60 Mesosphere quot p 5 39 8 50 40 3 3 E 40 39 Stratosphere 2 Pressu re 3 39 20 1u vs Altitude d m o l I u I r I Tmposphere 1 10 102 1 0 1 1 3 gab zoo 2amp0 220 230 280 300 Hassuumban quotw 45W 20 a an MP W Temperature K rm cnrzg cw mm 7c1 we 151C mm was 1 Because of the relationship shown in Graph A Because of the relationship shown in Graph B Because of the relationship shown in Graph C 3 607 50 40 30 Grams of water vapor per cubic meter of air 20 1O HOLDING CAPACITY OF THE AIR HOT WARM COLD 0 00 99 0 o 0 0 0 0 mg 3 00 0 o a 309 of 0 00 o a 051 0 9quot0 00 0 0 o o a 0 oo 0 0 0 o 00 0 0 0 G o u g M o0 P parcel of air 09 0 as 0 09 p I H l I 4 an 20 F U F 20 F 40 C 29 C 18 C 700 4W3 16 C 27 C 38 C ADDF 60 F SOUP IOOOF SGCKump p 78 in Ch 4 Temperature At higher air temperatures H20 molecules collide amp rebound more frequently leading to expansion of the air amp the water vapor in the air Hence hot climates can H20 u At lower aIr temperatures as aIr Q m gets more dense H20 molecules are more likely to bond so that a 2930 hase chane to Ii uid water or even solid ice can occur ll Hence in cooler climates more of the available H20 is likely to be in the liquid or solid state on the Earth s surface WATER VAPOR cont H20 is NOT globally increasing in direct response to humaninduced factors but if global temperatures get warmer H20 vapor in the atmosphere will increase Why due to more evaporation in the warmer climate THINK ABOUT THIS CARBON DIOXIDE Arrives in atmosphere naturally through the natural carbon cycle Due to unique quantum bending mode vibration behavior CO2 molecules are excellent absorbers of electromagnetic radiation of about 15 um T x Bending mod Just listen This info is in Table on p 48 002 is excellent absorber of radiation of about 15 pm WHOLE ATMOSPHERE s n xa lS 2 3 4 5 S789TO 2c 30 Wavelet399 pm T l 1 5 pm close to the radiation quot2 at 1 5 pm wavelength of 10 pm at which most of Earth s terrestrial radiation is absorbed See figure on p 38 CARBON DIOXIDE cont Has increased dramatically since the 1 800s due to 1 fossil fuel combustion oil coal gas especially coal and 2 deforestation which has the effect of increasing the amount of carbon in the atmospheric reservoir by reducing the photosynthesis outflow and increasing the respiration inflow Deforestation also accelerates forest decomposition burning etc adding to the overall respiration in ow This info is in Table on p 48 CARBON DIOXIDE Trends 380 I I I I I I T l I I 38 Keellng 360 mm E 350 I 9 39 5 340 A E E awn g a g 320 5 39 3 39 a E 320 g 300 8 c g sou v 280 230 l I I I I I I I 500 1000 1200 1400 1600 13m 2000 COz concentration ppm CARBON DIOXIDE Trends 365uv r1v1u Annual uctuations due to seasonal photosynthesis I Iesplratio cycle in forests 380 315 310 39AII JIlIII I 687072747678808284868890 Year The Keeling Curve l 66 1956 60 62 64 92 Annual Emissions to the Atmosphere PgC Land Use Change T m a a a in I E n I m m m m 1 n D m 3 m 39l fitni nuull Emiszsiung m the M n msphcm 4i Pg U1 39quotiquot339i39 CARBON emissions into the atmosphere are increasing http Wh I39ll S E i E H i d aft El It l b Eli I1 htrn Coni rubustim of F055 Fuela W Larid Use 139 immge mostly deforestation iIIITIIIIIllllllllillliiiiili 135i IBFD 13913 19113 1931 195D I 199111 CARBON DIOXIDE cont RESIDENCE TIME in the atmosphere of CARBON HTOMS in the oarbOn oycle 1 2 l years but residence time of CO2 GAS MOLECULES is estimated at about 1 00 years Plus it takes 50 to 1 00 years for atmospheric CO2 to adiust to changes in sources or sinks If we make changes now it will still be many many years before the effect will be felt This info is in Table on p 48 REGIONAL CO2 EMISSIONS amp THEIR SOURCES Regimmi when Dimitle Elil liSHIIJIl 00111 V2 110115 Artitquotities in 2000 I a 03le 01139 b gjg Cement LEE Total 00 Perggp a Comments burning burning 5 amg mamacram change 39 emissipr emissian 161 1 w 1 15343 j 11000177301511 meme 3 i513 332 202 51 43 354 A Europe 312 341 317 24 00 30 Middie East and Africa 17 504 274 43 102 84 SubSaharan Africa 151 841 13 00 45 1 0083512 2 North America 334 420 245 09 114215229 7 Centre America 25 4194 119 20 1 South America 28 170 60 13 719 7813141 219 Oceania 103 08 234 537834 083 WORLD average 157 27 2 2a 247064358 650 Remember the Ecological Footprint exercise SOURCE 2006 World Resources Institute httpearthtrendswriorqindexohlo p48 Carbon Emisslons Per Capita 1999 Tons alcarhon 1 173 34 per Capua 1999 9 r 15 gt15 No data SOURCE m Ilearthtrendsmrinr ma 5 s atiallma 5 detail static hgmag select1358ntheme3 Total 002 Emisslons Excluding Land Use Change 2000 a 4 z r39fmends The Envimnmnma mmrmam pm Total 02 Emissions lhuusands 1 cans of carbon dinxlde gt 1200001 1200 000 A 500001 500 00 v 200001 SOURCE 200000 60001 60000 httllearthtrendswriorInna smtiallma de No Daa tail static h C nla select484mhemee K Net Flux of Carbon to the Atmosphere LandUse Change 2000 cumulauvn Nal Flux mllllnn lens 039 urban gt 5001 Carbon Sourca 500001 501 A 15m m o 1 In 100 401 m 500 lt 5m Cmth sink 5 mum am sun Na Data Tom u mrImn pa punm mm CARBON EMISSIONS PER PERSON by NATIONS REGION another view Emissions per person in 1 999 MIIIium 01mm ul mrhun From 860 Hobson p 213 METHANE CH4 Sources Produced naturally in anaerobic processes eg decomposition of plant material in swamps amp bogs Has increased due to the following activities raising cattle l livestock rice production landfill decomposition pipeline leaks Has relatively short atmospheric residence time because it reacts with OH 1 0 years This info is in Table on p 48 Trends METHANE u 2 lt I in 2 398 8 8 8 o Addd Nouvumaouoo vHo REGIONAL Methane CH4 EMISSIONS amp THEIR SOURCES Regienal Methane Emmisinus11 0mYa IJIIS Activities in 2000 eg equipment leaks 2006 World Resources Institute httpearthtrendswriOrqindexphlo Energy OWEN WEI F591 IndUStrial Agriculture Waste Methane emlselen In 2000 am 00011311511011EWII ESIEIFIS Praeeaae s gig I 316 1 1 1 39 Asia 100 50 133 453 152 Europe 301 20 280 02 228 158 Middle East 0 N Africa 30 11 355 124 142 SubSaharan Afriea 1T5 101 75 450 190 North Al neriea 24 18 250 03 100 253 Central Al neriea 0 Caribbean 235 1 317 212 South AITIeriea 10 120 Oceania 14 103 WORLD average 39 158 p49 NITROUS OXIDE N20 Sources Produced naturally in soils Has increased due to fossil fuel combustion esp diesel forest burning use of nitrogen fertilizers Has long atmospheric residence time 1 50 years This info is in Table on p 48 N20 CONCENTRATION ppbv NITROUS OXIDE Trends 310 39 NITROUS OXIDE 300 290 280 1750 1850 1600 1900 CFCs Freon1 1 amp Freon1 2 Humanmade CFCs didn t exist in atmosphere prior to 1 950s Have increased at rates faster than any other greenhouse gas used in refrigerants tire retardants some aerosOI propellants amp foam blowing agents Absorb at different wavelengths than H20 and CO2 in 8 12 um WINDOW part of spectrum nence a single molecule can have great effect MONTREAL and subsequent PROTOCOLS have reduced CFC 39 This info is in Table on p 48 CFCs Trends Mm 39 393 24m 9 a N a o J Frearm pm CFC1 FREON11 u gt I I 1978 1982 was Es p 219 W h 55quot Mohtre aletocbl 39 5 signed In 1987 o m 1980 1994 9 CFC H CONCENTRATION ppm 00 1750 1800 1650 1500 1950 2000 FREON1 2 7 lt 4 Humanmade 9quot W 3 83 didn t exist v 1990 994 before 1950 Q6 Why do you think the concentration of CFC s didn t begin dropping immediately after the Montreal Protocol in 1987 1 Because it was an international agreement only and the nations of the world never followed through Because it called for only a 50 reduction of CFC s over 1 0 years and had to be followed by more stringent protocols later Because CFC s are very stable molecules and don t break down easily once they are in the atmosphere OZONE Sources Produced naturally in photochemical reactions in STRATOSPHERIC ozone layer good ozone Has increased in TROPOSPHERE due to hotochemical smo reactions bad ozone This info is in Table on p 48 Oa absorbs IR radiation of 96 pm close to wavelen39th of maximum terrestrial radiation 10 pm Amme quotn Maui dm 391 0 02 03 04 05 03 1 15 3 4 5 6 8 i0 20 30 Wavelengthum Bottom of p 38 also see pp 48 in SGCKump OZONE Trends Stratospheric ozone varies by latitude and season is affected by solar radiation volcanic eruptions amp chemical reactions due to CFCs Overall 03 is decreasing in the STRATOSPHERE y m mum hum mnim at am wmmn dam is 1950 mg 1954 was ma 19 mm 1994 Male on OZONE next class Estimates of the contribution from each of the humanmass GHG39s o the chunge in radiative forcing eg to warming from 1980 to 1990 38st on model Insults CFCS 11 and 12 TOTAL CFC s 24 17 7 55 lt 15 OTHER CFCS CARBON DIOXIDE NITROUS OXIDE METHANE Similar to Fig 923 on sec Hobson p 211 NOTE39Me contribution of OZONE may also be signi cant but is more di icult to quanlify ZOltltH Ougtltm mcwgtzgtwult mmmgmzd Im MAO Q 44km wa H a 3 Eight 0822003 THE STORY OF egg 339 4 EL 3 1 g i WITH ANNIE LEONARD Disclaimer Draw your own opinion this is not pa t of the scmnce content of the class and you are free to agree or disagree with it lt s meant tu get you thinking After cls vsit the Stuff webpage to watch it again if you like and also find A Fact Sheet Glossary Annotated Script with footnotes plus more httpwwwstoryofstuffcoml ABOUT THE AUTHOR Annie Leonard is an expert in international sustainabilit and environmental health issues Annie Leonard is an American scholar on international trade development international sustainability and environmental health issues with more than 20 years of experience investigating factories and dumps around the world
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