Psychology Week 3 Notes
Psychology Week 3 Notes Psych 2010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Chapter 2 continued… How do we avoid bias? Error o Random variability in results Bias o Systematic effects caused by extraneous factors Think about shooting a target o When you shoot them all in the middle = no bias, no error o When you shoot them in the middle but still spread out = no bias, error o When you shoot them all to the right but close together = bias, no error o When you shoot them all to the right but spread out = bias, error Do everything possible to reduce bias? Sample o Individuals selected to participate in an experiment Biased sample > Biased Results Random Samples o Any person in population has equal chance of being selected as any other person o Assumption: Sample represents population Random Assignment o Any person in sample has equal chance of being assigned to control or experimental group Expectancy Effects o Observer expectancy Researcher influences subject o Subject expectancy Subject responds in way they think researcher wants them to respond Ethics Institutional Review Process Are the participants in the study protected? Drawing Conclusions Validity o Internal Confidence/truth about casual relationships Reliable measure? Does independent variable test the question? o External Variables in the study represent real world Research Methods: Basic Statistics Statistics o Make sense of the data that are collected o Descriptive: describe/summarize data o Correlations: Predictions o Inferential: Draw conclusions about data Descriptive Statistics o Frequency Distribution Normal distribution Measure Central Tendency Variability (how spread out are people) o Central Tendency Mean, Median, and Mode Mean: arithmetic average Median: center score, determined by rank order Mode: most frequently occurring score o Correlation Degree of association between 2 variables Correlation Coefficient Magnitude (strength) and Direction of relationship Magnitude: ranges from -1.00 to 1.00 0 means no relationship Absolute value determines strength Direction: Positive or Negative Positive: Both scores go in same direction Negative: One score increases, other score decreases o Variability Degree to which numbers differ from mean (how spread put are the numbers) Standard Deviation Index of variability Inferential Statistics o Allow us to draw reasoned conclusions Decide whether the difference between the control group and experimental group is real P value tells if the difference is real o Statistical Significance Generally .05 or .01 Less than a 5% (or 1%) chance that observed due to chance Is the result due to chance? o Statistical significance vs. Practical Significance Neuroscience and Behavior Chapter 3 History of Neuroscience o Localization of function Specific parts of brain have specific functions o Phrenology Franz Gall Bumps on skull reveal mental abilities o Phineas Gage (1848) Learn about the brain through injury to the brain Destruction of large part of frontal lobe Executive functions destroyed Never the same after severe injury Structure o Cell body (soma) o Nucleus o Dendrites Receive information o Axon Send messages o Axon terminals House neurotransmitters o Myelin Sheath Insulates axon Functions of Neurons o 3 major types Sensory Neurons Receive information from external world Motor Neurons Carry info from spinal cord to muscles Interneurons Connect neurons o Nerves Bundles of axons o Neurons are important… ALS: destruction of motor neurons o Myelin MS (Multiple Sclerosis): destruction of myelin Composed of glial cells o Cannot function (normally) without myelin or neurons Conduction and Transmission o Conduction Communication within a neuron Resting Potential What it does when not receiving a message Potassium channels open; can move out of cell Difference between charge inside and outside cell is -70 mV Depolarization Action Potential How it sends a message on Movement of ions across the cell membrane temporarily giving it a positive charge All or none Threshold Like a flashlight Refractory period Self-propagating Nodes of Ranvier (go down axon more quickly) Repolarization How woulda strong stimulus (loud noise, bright light, etc.) be represented by neuron? Rate of action potential (more rapid = stronger) o What are main steps that occur during an action potential? Resting potential: Potassium leaves cell membrane Stimulus for neuron leads to depolarization (enter positive ions) As Sodium enters goes down cell membrane End of axon; release neurotransmitters Transmission: How Neurons Communicate o Synapse Junction between 2 neurons o Synaptic Gap/Cleft o Action potential > Release of neurotransmitters o Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers Presynaptic neuron > Postsynaptic neuron Cross synaptic cleft, bind to receptor Lock and Key Reuptake Extra are taken back up by the neuron that released them SSRI: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Enzyme Goes to eat extra neurotransmitters Types of Neurotransmitters o Excitatory Acetylcholine (motor control and memory) Glutamate (most common; Learning and memory) Norepinephrine (mood and arousal) o Inhibitory GABA (Anti-convulsants and Anti-Anxiety) Dopamine Serotonin (sleep, wakefulness, eating) Drugs and Neurotransmitters o Agonists Increase effects of neurotransmitter Prevent reuptake Increase production and Release o Antagonists Block function of neurotransmitters Block production and release Prevent binding o Neurotransmitters regulated in brain Feedback mechanisms o Drugs disturb balance Brain decreases amount of neurotransmitter Brain misses external source Results in craving and dependency o Caffeine Adenosine - Inhibitory NT Adenosine antagonist - binds to receptors, blocking adenosine DA and Glutamate (stimulants) enhanced Pituitary gland makes more adrenaline Increases DA o Cocaine Blocks reuptake of: Da (dependency) Serotonin (feelings of confidence, euphoria, exhilaration) Norepinephrine (Energy, appetite changes, heart rate) Increases # of DA receptors Depression and cravings if no cocaine o Neuron Summary Building blocks of the nervous system Dendrite, soma, and axon Sensory, motor, interneuron Nerves are bundles of axons Communicate through action potentials and neurotransmitters
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