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Psychology Week 3 Notes

by: Meagan

Psychology Week 3 Notes Psych 2010

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About this Document

These notes cover the rest of Chapter 2 and some of Chapter 3.
Introduction to Psychology
Aimee A Callender
Class Notes
Psychology, Social Science, Humanities
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
Chapter 2 continued… How do we avoid bias?  Error o Random variability in results  Bias o Systematic effects caused by extraneous factors  Think about shooting a target o When you shoot them all in the middle = no bias, no error o When you shoot them in the middle but still spread out = no bias, error o When you shoot them all to the right but close together = bias, no error o When you shoot them all to the right but spread out = bias, error Do everything possible to reduce bias?  Sample o Individuals selected to participate in an experiment  Biased sample > Biased Results  Random Samples o Any person in population has equal chance of being selected as any other person o Assumption: Sample represents population  Random Assignment o Any person in sample has equal chance of being assigned to control or experimental group  Expectancy Effects o Observer expectancy  Researcher influences subject o Subject expectancy  Subject responds in way they think researcher wants them to respond Ethics  Institutional Review Process  Are the participants in the study protected? Drawing Conclusions  Validity o Internal  Confidence/truth about casual relationships  Reliable measure?  Does independent variable test the question? o External  Variables in the study represent real world Research Methods: Basic Statistics  Statistics o Make sense of the data that are collected o Descriptive: describe/summarize data o Correlations: Predictions o Inferential: Draw conclusions about data  Descriptive Statistics o Frequency Distribution  Normal distribution  Measure Central Tendency  Variability (how spread out are people) o Central Tendency  Mean, Median, and Mode  Mean: arithmetic average  Median: center score, determined by rank order  Mode: most frequently occurring score o Correlation  Degree of association between 2 variables  Correlation Coefficient  Magnitude (strength) and Direction of relationship  Magnitude: ranges from -1.00 to 1.00  0 means no relationship  Absolute value determines strength  Direction: Positive or Negative  Positive: Both scores go in same direction  Negative: One score increases, other score decreases o Variability  Degree to which numbers differ from mean (how spread put are the numbers)  Standard Deviation  Index of variability  Inferential Statistics o Allow us to draw reasoned conclusions  Decide whether the difference between the control group and experimental group is real  P value tells if the difference is real o Statistical Significance  Generally .05 or .01  Less than a 5% (or 1%) chance that observed due to chance  Is the result due to chance? o Statistical significance vs. Practical Significance Neuroscience and Behavior Chapter 3  History of Neuroscience o Localization of function  Specific parts of brain have specific functions o Phrenology  Franz Gall  Bumps on skull reveal mental abilities o Phineas Gage (1848)  Learn about the brain through injury to the brain  Destruction of large part of frontal lobe  Executive functions destroyed  Never the same after severe injury  Structure o Cell body (soma) o Nucleus o Dendrites  Receive information o Axon  Send messages o Axon terminals  House neurotransmitters o Myelin Sheath  Insulates axon  Functions of Neurons o 3 major types  Sensory Neurons  Receive information from external world  Motor Neurons  Carry info from spinal cord to muscles  Interneurons  Connect neurons o Nerves  Bundles of axons o Neurons are important…  ALS: destruction of motor neurons o Myelin  MS (Multiple Sclerosis): destruction of myelin  Composed of glial cells o Cannot function (normally) without myelin or neurons  Conduction and Transmission o Conduction  Communication within a neuron  Resting Potential  What it does when not receiving a message  Potassium channels open; can move out of cell  Difference between charge inside and outside cell is -70 mV  Depolarization  Action Potential  How it sends a message on  Movement of ions across the cell membrane temporarily giving it a positive charge  All or none  Threshold  Like a flashlight  Refractory period  Self-propagating  Nodes of Ranvier (go down axon more quickly)  Repolarization  How woulda strong stimulus (loud noise, bright light, etc.) be represented by neuron?  Rate of action potential (more rapid = stronger) o What are main steps that occur during an action potential?  Resting potential: Potassium leaves cell membrane  Stimulus for neuron leads to depolarization (enter positive ions)  As Sodium enters goes down cell membrane  End of axon; release neurotransmitters  Transmission: How Neurons Communicate o Synapse  Junction between 2 neurons o Synaptic Gap/Cleft o Action potential > Release of neurotransmitters o Neurotransmitters  Chemical messengers  Presynaptic neuron > Postsynaptic neuron  Cross synaptic cleft, bind to receptor  Lock and Key  Reuptake  Extra are taken back up by the neuron that released them  SSRI: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor  Enzyme  Goes to eat extra neurotransmitters  Types of Neurotransmitters o Excitatory  Acetylcholine (motor control and memory)  Glutamate (most common; Learning and memory)  Norepinephrine (mood and arousal) o Inhibitory  GABA (Anti-convulsants and Anti-Anxiety)  Dopamine  Serotonin (sleep, wakefulness, eating)  Drugs and Neurotransmitters o Agonists  Increase effects of neurotransmitter  Prevent reuptake  Increase production and Release o Antagonists  Block function of neurotransmitters  Block production and release  Prevent binding o Neurotransmitters regulated in brain  Feedback mechanisms o Drugs disturb balance  Brain decreases amount of neurotransmitter  Brain misses external source  Results in craving and dependency o Caffeine  Adenosine - Inhibitory NT  Adenosine antagonist - binds to receptors, blocking adenosine  DA and Glutamate (stimulants) enhanced  Pituitary gland makes more adrenaline  Increases DA o Cocaine  Blocks reuptake of:  Da (dependency)  Serotonin (feelings of confidence, euphoria, exhilaration)  Norepinephrine (Energy, appetite changes, heart rate)  Increases # of DA receptors  Depression and cravings if no cocaine o Neuron Summary  Building blocks of the nervous system  Dendrite, soma, and axon  Sensory, motor, interneuron  Nerves are bundles of axons  Communicate through action potentials and neurotransmitters


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