Class Note for PTYS 206 with Professor Yelle at UA
Class Note for PTYS 206 with Professor Yelle at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Various and Sundry about Terrestrial Planets Fun Questions 1 What s the most biologically important species39on the planet That is if wewere to add up the mass of all the members of every Species which species would have the most mass a people b1 whales 0 termites d mosquitoes 239 Burning 210 gallons of gasoline in your car produces a 4 pounds of 302 b1 40 pounds of C02 0 400 pounds of CO d 4000000 pounds of 002 Fun Questions 1 Mars a has no water on its surface b has ice but no liquid water 0 liquid water but no ice 39d polar caps made mOStly of Water ice 2 Many scientists believe that Mars once had flowing water because a geological forms such as river deltas streambeds etc appearto have been formed by erosion due to flowing water b of the presenceof m39ineralsth39at usually form in the presence of liquid water c the mars Climate orbiter has photographed lakes d a and b Fun Questions 1 What s the most biologically important species39on the Planet That is if We were to add up the mass of all the members of every Species which species would have the most mass a people b1 whales termite sa39bout 10xas much as people d mosquitoes 239 Burning 210 gallons of gasoline in your car produces a 4 pounds of C302 b1 40 pounds of CO2 400 pounds of CQZ d 4000000 pounds of 002 Fun Questions 1 Mars a has no water on its surface b has ice but no liquid water 0 liquid water but no ice 39d polar caps made mO39stly of Water ice 239 Many scientists believe that Mars once had flowing water because a geological forms such as river deltas streambeds etc appe arito have been formed by erosion due to flowing water b of the presenceof m39ineralsth39at usually form in the presence of liquid water c the mars Climate orbiter has photographed lakes d 39a and b39 Show Rover Movie Q L A W 1 WV 41 521 7 J E W r filo 5 m 9 Mn ML augv Qpr mum E37 ngwm muw 240 270 3430 330 0 39 ED 90 120 150 180 u I l l T g ying e 240 2m 300 330 0 30 so 90 120 150 13h 21b 24a The Rover Pancam views the surface around the rover using two highresolution stereo cameras to complement the rover39s navigation cameras 3 59 6 WW 6 E mwu g E gzwvg wwmgng PEN M FF Swg wci g EVE gggxnw g g Ew 2 6E qu Egg Eg gg aw w E Mtgmwggmg E S E g ng E9 xqu w E Q E g wg 99 g g ng Ewg w 3 g ww g Eng w EQEE Q E E E C JD The View from inside opportunity s crater CF 533 Timiken gum whim W i h Mum 111 we 13mm Virtues of High Resolution Mars Blueberries Small round pebbles in the Escalantte N a tiinal Monument Utah know that quotthese are erOdugoed in round pebbles 911 Mars photographed by ojprrtunity nicknamed blueberriesi Wag mm um M f 1 i Eagle Omar Exil samyIs quotmama In Easall Mmsbauer Spnclra Mlcwscoplc Imager Picmra ol Punamu Moessbaunv frugal um I1 x mm a o vuomy mms Hematite Quartz Fe 20 3 Florence Mine Egrem onf West Cmnblia Cmnbiia England UK Specimen 5cm Wide Specimen amp photo by Crystal Classics Islands in the Stream Thesi and39r b shape iSL39bhara erI ftik2 Qf Wafer 39rIQWihgf as39t a nop stac le So we think that there was once liquid wate on Mars What do we do now Let s talk about Volcanoes some more f k awa m HHn fmm Olympus Mons and Mauna Ke al As the image shows Olympus Mons is much Iarge39r thl39a even the HaWaiah volp ahOe s This istva little surprising cgnsfiderin39g that Mars ismufch smaller th an Earth I39srthere a rea sch fOr this H mm em nP IIU H1 or C Tectonics 39 7 r7 J A l L Ql A I w A 7m W K i h mmw dmngaramdv 7 E M F W F 1i 1mmumlgi u yg uxg m row l L Em fie I 393 r 707 wt f5 AKX LaOJ f Fo rmat iidn of Hawaiin Islands History of Exploration Mariner 2 1962 Pioneer Venus II 1978 Ve nera 3 1965 Venera 11 1978 Venera 4 1967 Venera 12 1978 Mariner S 196739 Venera 13 1978 Venera 5 1969 Venera 14 1978 Venera 6 1969 Venera 1978 Venera 7 1970 Venera 16 197839 Venera 8 1972 Vega 1 1986 Mariner 10 1973 Vega 2 1986 Venera 197 Magellan 1991 Venera 10 197 Venus Express 2006 Pioneer Venus I 1978 White ybyi YelIiOW Qlijrbfi tef Blue Probe Pink Ballon Radar 2 Q m CHEomdl pamtib r w pm Key Results from Magellan The surface of Venus is mostly covered by volcanic materials Volcanic surface features Such as vast lava plains fields of Small lava domes and large shield volcanoes are common There are few impact craters on Venus suggesting that the surface is in general geologically young less than 800 million years old The presence of lava Chan nels over 6000 kilometers Along suggests riverlike flows of extremely lowviscosity lava that probably erupted at a high rate Large pancakeshaped volcanic domes suggest the presence of a type f lava produced by extensive evolution of crustal rocks Why is Plate Tectonics Important Active Volcanoes Plate Tectonics and the quotRing of Firequot V39 Neuuan much I quotFling of Fire I Hawaiian an Spat C ocos Plate Pacific Plate Antarctlc Plate USGS mum wascw 1997 Momfedfmm mm Helm wwwm 1957 901me 1975 n39 Cycle on Figure 16 On Earth carbon dioxide cycles between land and sky Gaseous CO2 is removed from the atmosphere to form sea oor sediments plate tectonism causes these sediments to be subducted into the upper mantle and subduction zone volcanism later releases the CO2 back into the atmosphere A balance thus exists between the loss of atmospheric CO2 and its resupply though the gas s actual abundance in the atmosphere may vary over time 36533746 bwmdar is Earth m2 in h397 e ngan l JES 7 m empgn ated b mate sediments these sed me nits fa r beunw in e Surface wiih erer thiey deeejmpnsed aritrh gh temperature reformmjg Q The atmustahere threug hf venean es FE Wm TwpView Ear m Why are Venus Earth and Mars so Di reni AyOpghige ruptjqn bn39Earth Though the molte39h rock a hd noxious fqmesv ge all the a entiq 39 ip39rimgry pro39dhot flaNdlcahi eruptioh is water 39 vac39tive 39 carbon and lb undc em y Pkobably the llafgestidifferen ce between the39Earthquotand Marsuand Venus isthatgur interjor 39is morequot Thisco39nstantly 39resu ppli es th e rfa jvyith new material sVUChVas Hp and CO LaQKingi thisL supply mechanism U n on Ma rsrr na y be in r t mOIeCUI39es Asaa re s ult39the M aftiajnatmdsph e39rer poLa39rc saretir1y ih 39 mbari sion with Earth Atmos 0 heric T6111 0 eratures 200 Thermosphere Mesosphere 7 k G H a E 2 i6 Lu Q 3 I H l lt Stratosphere I39 I I39I roposphereI 400 600 800 000quot TEMPERANJREdeh I 200 Fig from The New Solar System Hypothetical History Originally Mars Earth and Venus had large amounts of CO2 and H20 On Earth there is a constant uX of CO2 into and out of the mantle Most of the carbon is in the mantle and just enough remains in the atmosphere to keep the Earth warm On Mars the CO2 was eventually incorporated into the soil Once there it does not return to the atmosphere because Mars is geologically inactive Thus the atmosphere cooled down because of the lack of a greenhouse gas and turned into a cold dry world On Venus much of the original CO2 inventory still resides in the atmosphere keeping it extraordinarily hot Atmospheres of Earth Venus and Mars Earth Venus Mars Surf ace 300K 750 200 250 Temperature 39 Surface Pressure latm 900 0006atm CQmp OLS itiiOin N2 315 96L539 Why are Venus Earth and Mars so Different The large greenhouse effect on Venus makes it a very inhospitable place Mars lacks a significant greenhouse effect and is too cold for liquid waterto exist Earth hasta mild greenhouse effect and inSome loealess is a tem perate planet But this begs the questif On why the greenhouse effect so different on these 3 planets The more intense sunlight at Venus probably plays a role The runaway greenhouse effect where the temperature rises until all the water is in the 1 form of steam may be t h ee xplanation then does Mars not have a significant greenhouse effect Perhaps in its past it did thus explaining the evidence for surface water But why Would Mars cool off
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