U.S History Week 1&2 notes
U.S History Week 1&2 notes HIST 2110 286
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tizhana Turner on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2110 286 at Georgia State University taught by William Bryan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see SURVEY OF U.S. HISTORY in History at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
PreColombian Societies in the Americas (1/13/16) I. Geologic Formation of North America II. Migration to North America III. Pre Colombian Societies in Central and North America( Maya, Aztec, Mississippian, Hohokam/Anasazi) Why were humans able to migrate to the Americas? 1. They adapt to the cold climate near the Arctic Circle. 2. Cooling of the Earth’s climate between 25,00o and 10,000 years ago connect Asia and the Americas via the Bering Sea land bridge (called Beringia); people migrate into North America following big game. Three Migrations to America 1. First Migration(15,0009,000 years ago): Clovis/Paleo Indian groups 2. Second Migration (8,000 years ago: Ancestors of Navajo and Apache people. 3. Third Migration (5,000) Ancestors of Aleut and Inuit people. Maya Civilization 1. Flourish in Mexico between 300 and 900 AD 2. Diff. groups w/ the same language, and made of individual state/ territories with the same language but not under the same gov’t. 3. “Children of the Corn” 4. Build large cities supported by peasant villages growing needed crops 5. Very sophisticated math and astronomical knowledge and Mayan calendar (despite claims about the end of the world) is more accurate than the European calendar during the same period. 6. Declines around 900 A.D. because of deforestation, erosion and less productive farms; not enough food creates civil wars, and conquered by outside groups Aztec 1. Arrive in Central Mexico in late 1200s; Tenochtitlan founded in 1325; mercenaries for other groups in Central Mexico and by 1420s conquer these groups and establish rule over all of area; towns forced to become subjects creating what we now call the Aztec empire. 2. Conquest to worship their unique god Huitzilopotchli. 3. Receive tribute from conquered areas: food, cotton cloth, cacao beans, gold dust and feathers. 4. Largest civilization in the Americas: by sixteenth century Tenochtitlan has between 200,000300,000 people and at the time of Spanish invasion in 1519 Aztecs rule between 5 and 20 million people. 5. Aztec civilization really only declines as a result of the conquest of Cortes in 1519. Mississippian Civilization 1. Located in the Southeast (southern Mississippi River Valley) between 6001500 AD. 2. Based around widespread agriculture of maize, beans, an squash; build large towns based around temples and plazas; stratified social structure and death cults which involve ceremonial torture and sacrifice; 3. Mississippian people build bigger mounds than Adena; have platforms for ceremonies and living quarters for leaders 4. Cultural ties with Central America that are brought north; Mississippian people worship sun gods, and the mounds were intended to get them closer to the sun. 5. Mississippian society peaks in the 14th century and declines because of changes in climate and disease brought by Europeans. Hohokam Civilization 1. Flourish in Southwest starting around 400 B.C.; Arizona, Mexico, Colorado and Utah; most territory of all societies in North America. 2. Climate makes huntinggathering unreliable, and settle because of agriculture; difficult to grow corn in a desert, construct extensive systems of irrigation by conserving water from streams, springs, and rain and using it when needed. 3. Allows the formation of larger urban centers, based around multifamily dwellings called pueblos; platform mounds and ball courts. 4. No rigid class structure; leaders and everybody also labors like most people; less warlike, and use it as a means of defense. 5. Declined towards end of 13th century AD because of extended drought, which made dependence on agriculture (even with irrigation) difficult; spread out after that and settle in smaller groups throughout the Southwest. The Colombian Exchange (1.20.16) 1. Who really discovered the Americas? 2. European Exploration and Contact 3. Hernan Cortes at Tenochtitlan 4. The Colombian Exchange(Disease, Plants, Animals) 5. The Social Effects of the Colombian Exchange The Roots of European Exploration th 1. Decline of feudal lords and rise of the nationstate in the 15 century. 2. Increase of wealth for upperclass people in Europe; want to show off their wealth through consumer goods (often from East Asia). 3. New sailing and navigation technology. 4. Protestant Reformation and subsequent crackdowns by the Catholic Church Catholics see the New World as a place for gaining converts and others fleeting religious persecution see it as a place to escape to. How Did Cortes defeat the Aztecs? 1. Better weapons technology 2. Indigenous Allies 3. Smallpox The Colombian Exchange “In 1491, the world was in many of its aspects and characteristics a minimum of two worldsthe New World, of the Americas, and the Old World, consisting of Eurasia and Africa. Columbus brought them together, and almost immediately and continually ever since, we have had an exchange of native plants, animals and diseases moving back and forth across the oceans between the two worlds. A great deal of the economic, social, political history of the world is involved in the exchange of living organisms between the two worlds” (Alfred Crosby).
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