Note 13 for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
Note 13 for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Conservation Biolo 1 2 3 4 U1 Lecture 13 04 October 2005 Consenation Biology ECOL 406R506R University of Arizona Fall 2005 Kevin Bonine Kathy Gerst 406R 506R Creativity Projects HansWerner Herrmann Exam Discussion Lab Friday Mt Lemmon 0700h 07 Oct Paradigms and Theories Ch5 Conservation Genetics Ch6 Indiv Exam Group Exam 75 max 20 max Mean 6446 1567 Max 725 185 Min 465 13 SD 678 1 45 3 Niobrara amber snail Kanab amber snail wag a aifx r strange noncontinuous pattern large gaps sympatn39c populations in Arizona and Alberta 4 oxyloma haydenl hnydenl occurrences In Avizona Oxyluma haydnni kamlbnnsls occuzmncns In Milan overall spotty distribution possibly related to habitat s permanently wet soil surface andor shallow standing water T ypha Molecular approaches Mark Miller et al NAU AFLPs Amplified Fragmen1 Genetic Similarity Length Polymorphism n4 0 16 07 nvs up 1 n Tine Lakes A high polymorphism population level ludmn Genetic Disrancc Gardens 4 m n in nu Vascys r v l zuudue AKU m J Mile 7 9 4 m Three Lakes and Indian Gardens high level of genetic diversity Vaseys Paradise and 9 Mile low levels oods andor selfingb Bdeloz39d Rafifer B111 Birky EEB CW Asexual Species 4Ne generations since node W2 mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm 23th Bdelloids Yew Mamamwme s RobZIB ginobzm Mammme V H mm sew e i a cam BE Ema Ca p E uadr d Monogononls Hexanma 5p Ceph 7 n changes Mollusc oulgroup o Kanab Amber Snail The next year the US sh and ert because the lakes were inhabited 1 The snails differ 39om other told hIm mm snails only because oftheir golden color A few months later Mr Child discovered federal of cials he was told that ifthe geese had eate any snails he faced aw A state wildlife agent and a Highway Patrolman arrived with a shotgun intending to shoot the geese and remove their stomachs to nd out if any snails had been eaten The only thing that saved the geese was a reporter with the Southern Utah News who showed up and told them that she would photograph the massacre The agents then decided to back off and nally settled on forcing the geese to vomit No dead snails were found The geese are how safe but Mr Child is still v r the government refuses to compensate him for his loss The Wall Street Journal December 27 1993 VIS very important snail Pombo Republican Congressman from CA Critical Habitat Economic Hardship 10 western snowy plover mmquot mmsnmwwwcm mnt Mm 5 any was Map xfn Mung The US Fish and Wildlife Service has completed a nal rule designating 32 units of critical habitat along the coast of California Oregon and Washington for the Paci c coast population of the Western snowy plover a Federally threatened species The critical habitat unis total 12145 acres nearly 40 per cent less acreage than an earlier critical habitat plan the Service adopted in 1999 Ofthe designated units 24 are in California 7472 acres ve are in Oregon 2147 acres and three are in Washington 2526 acres Of the total acreage 2479 acres 20 percent are on Federal lands39 6474 acres 53 percent are owned by states or local agencies and 3191 acres 26 percent are private Compared to the 1999 plan today39s action designates more critical habitat units but generally smaller ones based on increased knowledge ofthe species39 needs and better mapping This new rule designates 32 unis covering 12145 acres compared to 28 units covering 19474 acres in the 1999 plan The rule Will take effect 30 days a er publication Some 2859 acres of proposed critical habitat in six units Were deleted based on the projected cost of designating critical habitat An economic analysis prepared by Industrial Economics Inc projected that critical habitat could cost between 273 million and 645 million With the biggest costs due to beach recreation losses More than threequarters of the loss Was found to occur in ve proposed California critical habitat units located on Coronado 395 Silver Strand Morro Bay Pismo Beach and two on Monterey Bay In addition 615 acres Were deleted because of management plans and commitments such as Habitat Conservation Plans and 1621 acres Were deleted because they are covered by military land management plans or national security needs 12 httpwww fws govpaci dsacramentoeanewsireleases2005 VnZONews VnZOReleasesWSPifCHZOOSiNR mm ANALYSIS or HR 3824 Tln39 muer uul Endangered Species Recme Acl nf 1005 TESRA The Ibrearened and Endangered opecres Recovery Acr ofzoos nprlares and rnroroyes she Endangered sneens Acr ESA by x x o n e Pmnckng for Ike use ofrhe besr aV mloble screnn c dam m all decrslons Replrumg lhe erlncol habnor program nnh o more rnreganerl lecovel39y planorng process thanncludcs rhe nlennhcanon nfspeu t areas elm are of specral olne ro rhe consen anon orlhe specres rrlncb are rhen glyen noonry m recovery unss e Pmndmg far ochre Implememauon ofrecoyery plans rhrongh rmplerneooanon agreemerns berrreen she Secremrv and orher federal ogeneres here lhE fedelal agency agrees ro nnplenrenr programs and plejetls rdernrfrerl rn rhe recorery plans e lncreasrng th role for snares lnrlran mbesr connlrer and local gor ennnenrs by r ensnnng lhal a Govemor and lespollsxble Smle agcncles eonnry and loeal gorernnrerns are prorrcled full nonce and uppamlmty ro comnrear on EA densmns affecong lberr Stale and regroas 2 derelopnrg reccrery plan goals for speues on a slaleebr rsmle basrs and mlpmnng he Smfe andlndlan oabe cooperaore agreemear pmnsmns of Seenon 6 re eorer condrclore speeres and olher speeres aftelxenL oncl o clanfrnsg rhe oeanoern of Secooo o cooperaoye ogreenrenr acunnes under the connrlrnnon provrsrons of Seclloxl 7 and sale prolnbnrons of secnons 4d and 9 e Ilnpmnllg rlre Secrlull 7 consnlrolron process by anrhonzrog roe development ofallenrarne consnlralroa procedures rbar are eonslsrenr wllll lhe elusnng eonsnlronon provrsrons o pm ndmg rnore cenalmy ro rhe Jeapaxdy sraodnrcl by mending dear yeopnrdy exms where 39 rhe ncllon reasonably would be expecred ro srgnnicanrly nnpede chrecrly Mmdnecd rhe consenanoo 1n rhe long rernr of rbe specaes m rhe vlld 39 o ensnnog rhalpernnr and bcense applrcaors dlypmlclpale m dre 13 caxlsuhalmu process and clarrfyrng rhor terms and condnrons lo m ord rncrdemal Ink nnposed under Seohon 7 should be roughly proporoonal m rhe lmpacl of lhe ldentl ed mudenml rolre Esrabhshrng new Lucemxves for olnorary conserr anon e ms rnclndrng Specles Recovery Agreemenrs vhlch rll allow landmulel39s ro enrer roro specres reoor ery agreemenls for Ken cfno less lhan or e years lo carry out aemnres thatpmlect and reslore habrrar fm corererl specres and connrbnre ro rho recoVery ofhsled specres soecres Consemnon connacr Agreernenrs olncb esrabhsh agreemmls wnh renns of 30 years 20 years and lo year for rhe rnrplernenranon of a nrarngernenr plan for endangered drrearened and candrdare specres as well as olher species comparably desrgnared noder Stale larr Anrbonzarron ofrechrncal assrslonce and nnnagernenr harnrng lo snpporr enrollmenr m Speores Recmery Agreemenls and Specres Conseroanon Connocr Agreamenm and Eslobhsbarenr of a oonserraooa gronrs pmgmu ro promole yolnnrary conserranon nfllsled species on pm are oroperry andxo proude nancral compensanon ro allerrale lhe bnrclen of conserr anon measures nnposerl upon pnvare properry onoers Codlfylng lhe No sonnrseslAssnraoces pohey 01 persons rlereloprng habnal oonserraoon plans Impmvmg rhe hobnar consen anon plan pmcedures nnder Seclmn lo by ensnnng that plans mclnde obrecoye measurable goals m be achrererl for he speeres moononng procedures and adaprn e nranagernenr prorrsrons ro respond ro reasonably foreseeable changed urcunlsrances In a specres sronrs Proudrng eenanny forpnvale propem39 owners by allowmg landonners ro request a wnrlen derernnnanon as ro nberher rherr land use acln rrres nrll uolale he take orolnbnrons of Secooa 9 granong rhe landonner rncrdenral mk cm erage where he rmrlen derennraalron rs thll they cnmply vmh Semnn 9 and gryrag a rnecharnsnr for coropensarrng rhe pnoare properry for foregone nse cfhls properly where lbe derernnrnnon rs that Lh acrryrry would nolane rhe lalre prohrbrrrons Cornpensarnrg pnyore propeny o ners for he fan rnorlrer ralne of loss ofnse for foregone nse ofrherr properry where he Secfelary has derennrned rhar rhe use of rhal pfopefty ooold consrrrnre o rakequot under Secrron 9 and rhe lcmnfy rs nor n lerwlse delerronrerl a nnrsance 39nneler prrncrples ofpmpmy and nnrsance law 14 1 Ensunng public accoumablluy by eqmnug me Seumry mamtam a pubhcly accessible ebs z xhat mchldes 1 endangexed and Iluemmed spcclcs hsls 2 all nal and proposed asdangmd and hemmed spams Iegulaums Issued under Secuou 4 6 draft and nal recov y plans 4 Lb asults of ve year seams m ms and 5 all Repmts and suppnmng dam m Cmgrcss required under ms would be the recovery plammg prousmns of Secmun s and ms Annual Cos Analysts under Semen 12a and V Pmndmg far annual and blmma reports to Congress on the smlus cfhs ed syeues aswell as expenditures fox species recovery efforts 15 m mumus mm 39n mm 53 mm at Exdngxm chnuy m Fm 3324 Rep Pombn39sAml Endangered pmes Inn A mm m r mm in sun 22 Du Wm 19 00 Rmmnlmm t rum P1me mu muudnad H K 533 mg so clued nwmnw am Lmngm wequot emur Jae1W A mm a dtn lows ma lb 1 m mam mduxlma an Inn ude cm W bran am 0 m kmngeud spam m mnxm V uh m rm pin mmamm us me han uerhm mm Rrkru m mm wusl plmumni his pm mu m Md mcmntc mum L Hqu Culnpluh39 immalu Cnnml muim Pmmuum M r m annulled n hm hm rW m shumm me maul hubmu waxtaon oflhl bummed 21mm Au m unnamed we esAcl mum me dmpmmlol 39cnnznl 11 va Mun rquot quotu un nmnnmpmaqmn s1 mum s um mm mm m um swarm pumu 1m ma uplmm mm quotmm M s mm M I work ipwu mm mm mm m mm as mm m n mommy u wentx mum u xu humans In mum ASK m We pom mu Mums dun lecm cl39quot pum xaeuuxs aw menus um um m oi39swu Allu w 7 emumm on wean 4m 1 m 41 l xemlmhlgz nus H mm m um r m nun4 Mm w H m y nanyn l mm Mm lemulrd tn Ilm h an M m 11mm an arr u mquot s Hum m mm m 4 prR39IuIn m m mm m mnm Indmlu and umuu nnl mman x Ilrlrnllne x mm an al wean mlertunomdlmgend speammc 14 has no m susz Innmu mm lnnipuhvinn utsdum r ummm w u TlurPaInImhllluHAt umlmmlAnnmule Ihr 5513 mm mmquot mum m unnum m r uln may m s hr m nxdmlynnhprnn Mm 1m hurlrllmwhnll wur INuhllnu ul hlnhhdl llnu um um lruurl In new u miuhln1011mm llrlwnmuhh vMlnm l m Pmi quotmmm mm Sym n AanmmlL 1mm Ihau dtunk ubcmnk m unsusmrm bnlnudnblr mm mfoumnan and 1mm quotup w w wmc cadmium odunmntlbe be musmwmIwumuv m4 nmmmm L Luxymruu39ml lawsst hmhlrdw mansum Punlnnlu luuulxllr ml Hlmm Pvmrlhurruf w wer an quotuhquot mm mudJJhm rm Wm Mm mums rumor anusms 12mm u rm mmm 5m 1 mamamnnm mm 1 mmmmnmnmur 1rxmh1nm hr 16 mummth Iainsynwsm anquot m m x mum m mm mm 3 m quotmmquot mm mm m WNW quotrm Mum RECO TRY PLANS v Remotes hInndnte cli Recuve 39 Sec 9 and 10 The Ponilio hill deletes the current statute ESA 4D and rewrites it leaving out the current speci carinn of a recovery plan as being for the quotconservation and siim39rai or endangered species and threatened species 39 Page 17 line 14 This rednces the mandate ou the federal govenunent to recover threatened or endangered spectesr Speci es Recm39ery Plans are t39nluntaiy Sec 9 Sec 10 amended Althouin it requires that recovery plans are published within two years of llstnig the species as threatened or endangered the Pombo hill explicitly assures that recovery plans have no regulatory weight to ensure their implementation Nothing in a recovery plan shall be construed to establish regulatory requirements Page 25 line 12 Federal ageiiues would not he required to work toward the recovery goals and ObJECtJYES for endangered spectes Rel es Recovery Plans to Iucltitle Iullttstry lies Sec 9 and 10 the Pombo hill speci cally requires the recorery plans include the desires ofindiisiry and commercial interests It requires the Secretary to ensure that each recovery team quotincludes suf cient representation from constituencies 39th a demonstrated direct interest In the species and its onsetmum or in the ecouounc and social iuipztcts of its causeminor to ensure that the Views of such constituencies will be constdered in the development of the plan Page lllle 16 C39iiii39eiitly recovery plan are supposed to represent the biological needs and goals for rhrearened and endangered species as developed by the scientific experts on each species The Poinbo bill would allow commercial interests to determine the biological needs of the species PROTECTIONS Removes Protections from Declining Species Sec 10 The Prth bill alluws mchtidual states to quotpursue a determination that the portion of the species found in that State may be removed from the threatened or endangered species hstsquot Pa ge 27 Line 7 Such a system would allow individual states to remove protections for the species in that state even if the species is declining overall Discourages Protections for Distinct Pnpulntions Sec 4 The Pninhe bill requires Fish and wildlife seryice to use the authority to dercrinine any distinct population of any species of vertebrate fish or mldlife to be an endangered species or a threatened species only sparingly Page a line ll The Endangered Species Act currently allows the Listing of species subspecies and quotdistinct pnpulatrnn segments quot Pornlin39s hill attempts to niakes til harder to list populations by requiring that it be done 39 sparingly 17 CONSULTATION Erernpts srares hnrn Federal oieissghr Sec 11 The Ponihe liill eirenipts sraie actions iliariuay harm a threatened er endangered species once the srare has a ceeperahie Conservation agreeineni arch the federal goreninienr for thar spenes Any incidenrrii lake statement issued en the ngeenienr shall apply tn any such species and to the state and and landowners elimlletliil any program rrnderiiie agreement without airtiier cnnsrdration Page 3i hne 18 As currently written the Endangered species Act proiides full pretecrioii in each new species added to rhe endangered species list The Pomba bill allows rhe U s Ftsli and Wildlife Semce and NOAA rishenes re sign in agreement iyrrh iudindiral stares pnm in a species being hsted iilucli prehihirs new prorecnous for those species This would allow ruruie neiiens ilinr hann the species at en it rhe codperany e agreement did her address such acpen and er en iflhe ngreerneni was initiated before the species was listed as threatened or snidaiigered Jeepardy Standard Sec 3 The Poinhe liill changes the standard by which federal acpens are prohibited from enpardizing endangered species The prnhrhrnnn offedeial acnons thar ii eritd retluce appreciably ilie lilrelihnnd or suryiyai and recovery of a species re a prohihinen or actions rhar wniild signi cantly impede directly or indirectly rhe conservation in rhe longetcmi or the species quot Pag liue 2 This neuld make it harder to showhrinnio species as well as allott actions that ii oiitd harrn species in he slmrtrtemi Allnws Destructive ijects tu Pieceed by Derault Sec 13 mended The Endangered Species Act currently requires a desnucnye preyecr can ner preceed nnnl it is reiien ed and approy ed by gm enirneur scieuiisrs The renew can ner trike place unless the agency or coiperarioii preposing the project provides derailed information about the project and its likely streets The Polnlm hill lms this precniirionary precess on its head by specifying that lesmicuve prerects are allowed to proceed unless gey enrineur scieunsrs iurercede re srep ir erhe secretary fails te proyide a written deierrnrnannn before Ihe expiranen orthe lxoeday period the Secretary is deernedio haye demand that the proposed use ceniphes Page 55 line a The sciennsts will haye lirrle inrorrnaiien re make such an intercession hecause rlre Poinhe bill allows agencies ro prentlie unly the nature the speci c location and the anricipoied schedule and duration nfthe prvpased actren39 Page 54 line s not enniigh mfonnatioi in allow a scleilli c reyien Eliminates independent Federal Oversight See 12 The Pombc bill allews the exnnprion of speci c agency actions or caregenes mfageticy acnnus39 Page 43 line 19 out independenr re iew and instead substitute unde ned alternate procedures 39 Page 44 line 5 The Endangered species Act requires that Fish and Wildlife Semce nrNOAA rislieries Seruce biologists reyien all federal actions that may harm endangered species The renew is done only on rhe hasis ofthe best available science and is cenducred hy scientrsrs indepeiidenr nfthe fetleml ageiicyprnpesing the harmful acnou The Peniho bill innres re eliniiuare rhis independeur nrersighr orprniecls that can harm endangered species 13 Eliminates the Endangered Speeies Cuinrniitee See 12 The Pombo blLl ehnuuares enurely the Endangered Species Cornunulee process known as rhe Gad squad Page 42 hue 1 Thrs cabmeirlevel renew process in allow federal agencies in menu use prureehous ofrhe Endangered Specres Act has prcuonsly ruled agarusr the fedenrl goyemureru and for errelaugered speeres PRIVATE LA FD oxers Cudl es Nu Surprisesquot Regularlous See 13 The Pumbo lull cadl es lhe Nu Surprsses 39pollQ39 mrenLly ahaghly eonuouersral adrurnrsrrahre regulahon xhat has been rudely euudenuued by su msts The Pomha lull proluhus the U 5 F15 and erdhfe Semee and NCAA Prshenes fxmnupdahng fzuhng llahuas Conseryahou Plans unless he pm are laud ovmer holdsug the perrrur agrees Thus new sclelm c rnfoeruauon and rhe resulrs ofbrulogrcal nronrrorrng no longer requuc updanng of plans For any changed circumstance uor rdenufred m rhe pemm m rneorporared doeuureru the Secrelary may inth absence ofconscm of ihe penmttee requrre only sueh addrqu nuuuruzauon rmugahou or ouher rueasures m adehess such ehauged nreumslanee rhar de uur myolye me eurnrnriaueru or any addruonal land 115 or frnaucral eeanpensauon not mhermse eornnurrled or rhe Lulposlum of addruonal resureuohs and use ufuny laud water or orher natural resources udrerwrse uuarlahle fm derelopsneau uruse uuder ihe ongrual leans aud eoudurons ofrhe perrurr or ureorpuraled doeurueul 39 Page 51 hare 13 Baulaupls 101 In Glue Puyulfs in Des elopers Sec 14 The Pomba blll reqrures she federal gm enuneau ro pay pmale landowuers for the loss of commercxahnlu when an ueuon umber banes39s developmcng ex rs proluhrred hy the proueeuons ofthe Erulaugered Speeres Aer The Pombo blil calls lhss proyrsron ccnsenaucn ard The lull speerses mar quotme anuouur ofrhe Aid rs 0 be no less Ihau the farr rnarlrer yalue of the forgone use ofnre asfecfed puruon ufdne property Page 59 hue 2 That rs uhe federal goyeeunreur ould have no pay furpruhrs developers hoped Io gasuhy duelupmg rhar poruuu ofth land ruclhdrug any pro ts lusr due in mmgaucns asked ohhe landowner sueh us reuuurng rrpauau eorrrdors or setting usrde nnrugahun habitat Thrs not uuly would have a uernenriuus Impact on the federal bruigel 1i would set a precedcnl do rcque the guuenuueru no pay rudusuy for any pm ls losi ro ermrouurenral prorecuous and ii would reward developers who plan the maximum and most puleunally pro table 171171205 for rhe most eeulugreully lmpmxzmt habrrar In shun u hegs deyelopers Io plau projects uhar allow than 0 error pay nuem hum xhe guyerrrmeul Puriherrnme Ilns pruyusruu requsres lhar rhe peyrueur fur she aidquot rs pard from the budget of rhe Inrenur Deparuueur by the end ofuhe scal year Hsufrrcrenr funds are nor asarlahle no pay an ard awarri in full the Secretary shall pay any emammg halauee when fuuds nexr heeurne amllable39 Page 53gt hue 21 The Secretary shall pay he and requrred byrhrs secuon from any funds avmlable w the Secremry rhar are nm rnaudaredby law In be speau for other aeuyaues or obhgauons 39 Page 59 hue 12 These paymenls would lake prroruy over 19 all orher programs nauusi of lhe endangered spenes program but use enure Deparuuenl uf Lureuor Chapter 5 Paradigms Genetic Diversity MVP PVA Island Biogeography Metapopulations Habitat Heterogeneity Disturbance Chap 6 Genetics of Conservation Biology 20 10 Metapopulation Spatially disjunct groups of individuals with some demographic or genetic connection largely independent yet interconnected by migration 1 All local populations must be prone to extinction 2 Persistence of entire population requires recolonization of individual sites See p193 in VanDyke text 21 quot71 Pl 394 l source 139 VVVVVVVVV quotMb iiiv VVVVVVVV W 3941 I 8 g Reproduction VJ m Immigration x Mortality 5 Sink 7 Rapmguaien l Quality of Habitat Survivavship am p137 Figure 517 ii i m ngu m Metapopulation Hydrothermal Vents Lowland Leopard Frogs thanks to Don Swann 23 12 sagulm lennll Park West m Sumatra Fm 13 3 MW MQVX wk 1 U m 2 w M H J I w xvi quot1659ij 3 K 12wa fr E J 1 K ET I fix 3L vq Hm Distribution of Lowland Leopard Frogs 4m in Rincon Mountains 19962001 14 Metapopulation Dynamics 29 30 15 16 u I Chytrld Fungus Juggling Balls Oranges and Mites GOOD lt Q Q A dmgvammunc rewesema on of HuHuker s ape 39mem on We persis enoe of a pvedatorprey sysyem of Mo species of Me Dovk ewes repvesem oranges Mm m39wes coma colonize and whne c39wdes vepresem rubber buHs of nonhubhm May May coma nor Co om39ze After Hu akw 1953 and Hu aker Shea and Herman 1953 34 17 120 Habitat Heterogeneity y u 13x H2 a 34 Plt0 mum Conserve Bigger Area Population Variab ly Conserve More Diverse 0 so too 150 200 250 300 Habitat Heterogeneity Figure 523 Popuioti oiis oi bush ciieLet Metrioptera bioser subunits exempii39iy that popuiution size is iess voiiabie us heteiogeiieity iiicieoses Doik ciicies indicate patches where ioch extinctions occuiied White Ciieie ndicate porches with extant popuioiions Popuiuiion Vurtobiitiy was measured by the eoeitieiehi oiveiience m or iooai peptietion Size and habitat iieteiogeneity was measured using digitized inheied heiiei photogiepiie Each patch was assigned voiues emitting to how much the patch deviated hem the standard ievei eighty in the photogiepiie some After Kiiidvall U996 Disturbances Endogenous Exogenous Ahsuv is seen cwexedby sand asxeadmts Walk In their hamesta inspeetthe damage byhlxncane ImWednzsday Sept 22 2mm mpehsheaihaeheh m Eehehteeaehtswete maweata see 39heuhames m the mum me the hurncanz AP thaAhnDnz 18 Habitat Heterogeneity ancl Disturbance Climax Community vs Shifting Mosaic Tree Fall in Forest Beaver Dam on Stream 37 Dr Melanie Culver SNR UA 38 19 Applications of Genetics to Conservation Biology Molecular Taxonomy Populations Gene Flow Phylogeography Relatedness Kinship Paternity Individual ID Conservation Biology Population biology Physiology Island biogeography Hazard evaluation Veterinary medicine Environmental monitoring Social science Natural Resources Policy Management Genetics Conservation Genetics Evolution MM SD Systematics Taxonomy Small populations Population structure InbreedingOutbreeding Hybridization Genetic diversity Genetic management Reintroduction Species biology Forensics 40 20 How can genetics minimize extinction Understanding species biology 7 Relatedness kinship paternity individual ID 7 Gene ow migration dispersal movement patterns Molecular Systematics 7 Resolve taxonomic uncertainty 7 Resolve population structure phylogeography 7 De ne management units 7 Identify populations of concern 41 How can genetics minimize extinction continued Detect and minimize inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity Detect and minimize hybridization Nonintrusive noninvasive sampling Identify best population for reintroduction Forensics 42 21
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