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History 1200 january 25-jan27th

by: Cassidy Hall

History 1200 january 25-jan27th 1200

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > History > 1200 > History 1200 january 25 jan27th
Cassidy Hall
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Notes from January 25th and January 27th
Survey of American History Since 1865
Steven Watts
Class Notes
History 1200




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Hall on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1200 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Steven Watts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
Nineteenth Century America: Society and Culture Jan 25, 2016 I. Market Economy and Society II. Victorian Culture III. Working Class Culture Terms Market Revolution Domesticity Household Economy Sylvester Graham Task Oriented Work Catherine Beecher, Treatise on Domestic Economy Time Oriented Work Christian Gentleman Paternalism True Woman Self-made Man St. Monday Self-Control Temperance American Life in the 19 th Century Market Revolution- was a transformative event that profoundly changed that nature of American Life 1790-1830. Changed both the economic life, and the social structure of our society. What is the Market?  The Market is an economic and social system where people do a number of things  People pursue their self-interest  A system where all goods and all services (work) has a monetary value  People interact and comfort with on another as competing individuals The Market achieved a position of dominance Free Markets Household Economy- is the household consumption, production, etc.  Exchange of services, money was not very involved.  Community oriented  Predominately agricultural o Vast majority of people made their living through farming o A certain notion of Task Oriented Work Task Oriented Work  Is defined by the task at hand  The labor goes up and down depending on the year o Ex. Agricultural Economy There starts to be more focus on individual production, profit, and success. The modern idea of time oriented work  “Time is Money”  This eventually produces the industrial revolution. Paternalism “Paternal Society”  Pre- modern  Pre-Market  Family oriented  The male head of the house was at the top of the pyramid o Then the wife, then the kids, servants, etc. o Authority floats downward  Very clear flow of power  Deference- people of lower power deferred their authority. If you saw someone of higher social standing you would stop and bow. Market Revolution changes all of the above Self-commitment to individualism Deference and Paternalism didn’t work well with this Contracts are legal binding agreements between or among individuals. “If you do this, I will do that”  Makes modern market society Opportunity for individual enhancement Social Class configuration Some people doing well, some people not doing so well Resistance Some people didn’t like the new market and tried to resist it. Victorian Culture Was the culture of the people who tended to be successful with the market revolution?  Entrepreneur, and businessman  Victorians were fans of individualism  Self made man was central to the Victorian ideology The idea of self-control  In terms of having a grip on your emotions  Repressing your passions and your impulses  Have to be focused and have to be very controlled.  Victorians were obsessed with men being able to control their sexual appetite Sylvester Graham  Invited the Graham Cracker  Wrote advice literature for young men o Wrote pamphlets and essays  Told men that they had to get sexual appetites and passions under control  The sexual appetite for unmarried men was dangerous (even for married men as well) could indulge no more than 12 times a year The Domesticity  Victorians talked about the domestic ideal in writing  The notion of family and home life o “A haven in a heartless world”  Should be a loving environment  Women ran the household Catherine Beecher Wrote “Treatise on Domestic Economy” in 1840s  It was about how to make the household work  “The home was the moral center of the nation”  Women had to make the home those moral centers  Advice about how to dress and be a proper woman. Christian Gentleman was the ideal man  Tiger in the market place, ferocious competitor  When he comes home knuckles under to the home of the wife Ideal women is the true women  Sweet asexual morally commanding figure  Would never dream of going into the brutal world of work. Working Class Culture  Less successful in the market place  The kind of the cultural that remains community oriented.  Working class community stays with their old ways  World of work and labor for working class people  Loyalty remaining in the labor  Resistance to the ongoing momentum to the market St Monday  Refers to the habit of having a fun weekend.  Don’t go to work on Monday if you were hung-over  Kept up the old habits of games and theater, drinking etc. Temperance  The consumption of alcohol  Victorians were against alcohol  Wanted working class people not to drink  The working class people would try and beat them up and run them out of town. The Trauma of the Civil War Jan 27, 2016 I. Sectional Divisions II. Coming of the War III. Impact of the War Terms Republican Party George Fitzhugh, Cannibals All! Free Labor “Slavery in Territories” Ostend Manifesto Bleeding Kansas Paternalism Mass Production Planation Novels Singer Sewing Company Uncle Tom’s Cabin “Total War” I. Sectional Divisions The war was a long and ghastly affair filled with bloodshed. Is perceived in weird ways. In the middle of the 1800s the US was deeply divided over the issue of slavery. This radiated out into politics, social situations, etc. The North by the middle of the 1800s, the north was dominated by Victorian values.  Attracted the values of northerners  Republican Party was formed in the early 1850s, essentially a northern political party.  Was mostly filled with white Christian men. Deeply rooted in Victorian values. Free Labor was the notion that northern believed the an individuals capacity to use their own labor was really the base of getting ahead and life and the essence of all other freedoms in the American public. Became the calling card of the Republican Party. The essence of the northern approach to life. The cultural situation in the south was more complicated.  Was dominated by the planter elite (big farmers in the south)  Were planation owners and owned slaves  “The Cotton Kingdom” in the south  Plantar elites ran the “show” The Industrial revolution in Europe was advanced compared to the industrial revolution in America. Planter elite would sell cotton and were very entangled in the international market. Ostend Manifesto came to life in the 1850s, was a plan that was put together with politicians and journalists, was a blueprint for expanding southern slavery more south (Mexico etc). Wanted to expand cotton production even more. Slavery ran across the grain of individualism. Slaves who provided labor could not be free competing individuals for the market. Slavery was an important mechanism that these southern poorer farms did not have access to. Good society was paternal. In the south paternalism was when the strong looked after the weak. Paternal south  Planation Novels mostly popular in the south  It was about life on southern plantations.  Pictures depicted it was happy  Slave owners were the fathers, and they were one big happy family II. Coming of the War The Civil war was a clash of social and cultural values. Northerners didn’t like slavery because:  Northerners criticized slavery because it was a violation of free labor  Were very distressed about slavery because it violated the notation of self -control that Victorians were very keen on.  Was a violation of domestic ideal  Families being broken up  Women being abused Uncle Tom’s Cabin was a novel written in the 1850s  Harriet Stow, was the sister of Catherine Beecher  It was a story about the planation life in the south  It was a best seller As a result the South launched a criticism of the North values Southerners saw the Northerners as people who only saw value in material values. They were seen as selfish George Fitzguh, Cannibals All  1850s  Was a critique of the north  Northern society were cannibals  They would “eat” one another  Would simply would do anything to get ahead  Pushed Southern Paternalism The North was infected with wage slavery Was paid the bare minimum Slaves were clothed, and housed The two big ideas got all tangled up  Slavery  Expansion “ Slavery in the Territories”  Since the colonial period pushed across the Mississippi river o Would these states be slave states, or would they be free states. Bleeding Kansas  The territory of Kansas had filled with enough people that it could apply to be apart of the union  Both the North and the south pushed to influence the people to vote in one way or another  Essentially never settled John Brown was a white American abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States. After Abraham Lincoln was voted in the south began to succeed III. Impact of the Civil war North won the war  The North won at a tremendous cost.  Over 300,000 casualties on each side  A triumph of Victorian values  The triumph of market values  The war was devastating particularly for the south, but north had an economic boost. o Because of the need for clothes etc. Singer Sewing Company  Made uniforms for northern troops, eventually million of uniforms  They made a lot of money and grew tremendously The South was pictured differently  Southern society is in shambles  They are bitter, about the war, the slaves, and their economy  Bitter about the destruction of paternalism  Resent of the Yankees, and black slaves  White southerners are very angry people African Americans  Were euphoric  But Black people were thrown out into society to make good without any education, money, property, etc.  They faced a white society deeply resentful of black people


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