Hist 102 H, Week 2 Lecture Notes
Hist 102 H, Week 2 Lecture Notes HIST102H
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Breionna Real on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST102H at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by Craig Saucier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see WESTERN CIVILIZATION FROM 1500 FOR HONOR STUDENTS in History at Southeastern Louisiana University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Western Civilization from 1500 (HONORS) SELU HIST 102 H Week Two Lecture Notes I. Introduction There are growing differences in Europe but religious conformity is maintained. Most who identify as “Christians” are following Roman Catholicism. 1. Breaks down due to the Reformation A. Unity is shattered and divided along religious lines. There are many protestant sub religions emerging. B. They began to fight each other in the name of God (one of man’s greatest ironies). 2. There is a long historical build up starting in the Middle Ages. A. Heresy B. Movement of the capitol to Avignon (a French city) C. Schism in the Church (time were there were two or more popes) 3. Boils down to doctrine and belief. The biggest problem in the Church was the people, meaning the institution itself. II. The Lower Clergies This includes the priests and nuns that were suffering a decline is prestige for four major reasons. 1. Financial burdens. They were demanding more money from the people in the form of taxes, fees, and the tithe. 2. The Black Death. The clergies abandoned their responsibilities to the people in fear of contracting the disease. For the people, this was similar to being abandoned by God. 3. Growth in literacy. With the invention of the printing press, the Bible became more accessible and people realized that the Church was not meeting expectations. 4. Corruption. The members of the Church were more worldly than they should have been. III. The Bishops 1. The bishops owned the diocese (also called a bishopric or see) and tended to be from wealthy, noble families. 2. Bishops wanted to own more dioceses for wealth. This Pluralism was contrary to Church law but mostly ignored. 3. Pluralism lead to absenteeism, meaning the bishops rarely visited their diocese. IV. The “Renaissance” Papacy This is where you could see the most serious of problems 1. Popes endured great financial problems. They sought to remedy it in two ways. A. Indulgences emerged, replacing the penance. People could now buy their way out of sin through a Treasury of Merit. The idea of the treasury was that there were good deeds stored away and you could purchase them to be applied to your depts. B. Simony the sale of Church offices, buy your way into becoming an abbot. 2. Focus on secular power. Famous example being Pope Julius II who loved bloodshed and war. 3. Papacy was used as a tool of family politics. Families wanted to advance their fortunes. A. Pope Alex VI (formerly Rodrigo Borgia) came into power after his daughter Lucrezia poisoned and killed Pope Innocent VIII. The idea was to appoint as many male family members to the College of Cardinals as possible to ensure power. B. Pope Leo X (pope 15131521) was an archbishop at 9, appointed to the CoC at 14, and became pope at age 38. Famous quote – “God has given us the papacy, let us enjoy it.” C. Pope Sixtus IV bought his way into the papacy. Used his nephews, the Riario Brothers, to conspire against the Medici family. The plan was to have two killed and take control of Florence. This failed and Pope Sixtus excommunicated Florence. This is similar to modern day mafia family rivalries. There were two responses to the corruption of the papacy in Europe, which lead to a religious explosion in the Holy Roman Empire. 1. Most accepted it with a cynical shrug in Italy. 2. Northern Europeans were disgusted. V. Luther: Early Life Born in 1483 to Hans Luther. Hans had been poor but rose to be a mine owner. Wanted his oldest son to become a lawyer and increase the family’s wealth. 1. Martin studied Liberal Arts at the University of Erfurt. He earned his bachelors in 1502 and his masters in 1505. 2. In July of 1505, Martin was caught in a thunder storm on his way back to the university. After being struck by lightning, he believed that death was upon him and prayed to St. Anne. He prayed to her that if he should live he would work for a monastery. He lived and then went through with his promise to St. Anne. 3. He worked hard on his primary goal of salvation. His “good works” were done in excesses as he had increasing doubts of his worthiness. Martin was ordained as a Catholic priest in 1507. His father attended his first mass where Martin became overwhelmed by his doubts. This internal crisis was the next turning point in his life.
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