Survey of U.S. History, Week One Notes
Survey of U.S. History, Week One Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monique Rojas on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Amani Marshall in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Survey of United States History in History at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Survey of U.S. History Week 1 Day 1 & 2 Notebook Question (Day 1): What is a primary source? Primary Source: original document or artifact created at the time of an event by people participating in it o Ex: diaries, witness testimony, artwork, videos, photos, etc. Secondary Source: analyzes/ interprets primary sources to make an argument o Ex: textbooks, articles, blogs, reenactments, documentaries, theories, etc. Notebook Question (Day 2): o How did the English view the “New World”? What forces fueled migration and settlement? th o How did the Virginia colony evolve over the course of the 17 century? o How did the labor system in Virginia shift indentured servitude to racial slavery? English View of the “New World” o Religion & national glory o “New World” = land of new opportunity England was overpopulated at the time with a large number of unemployed and homeless individuals Land is a basis of liberty Jamestown, Virginia, 1607 o Funded by the Virginia Company o Before tobacco was founded as a cash crop nearly 80% of the initial immigrants of Jamestown died o House of Burgesses was the first elected assembly of colonial America founded in Jamestown o Headright System: for each person’s passage paid for, the Virginia Company gave 50 acres to the initial investor o Pocahontas married of to John Rolfe by her father Powhatan to establish peace between the English and the local Native Americans Pocahontas converted to Christianity, changed her name to Rebecca, and moved to England Her image was used to was used to create a politically driven poster to justify the conquest of Native Americans Origins of Slavery o *Servants were not free, but servants were not slaves* o August, 1619: 20 Africans were stolen from a Portuguese slave ship and the Africans were traded in Jamestown for supplies They were used as indentured servants because there were no laws against slavery in England o Antonio Johnson Antonio arrived in Virginia in 1621 and was listed as Antonio a Negro He earned his freedom after 7 years and in 1651 he claimed 250 acres of land for 5 headrights (meaning he oversaw 5 English indentured servants) Antonio was the first black man to successfully sue a white man English Servitude to African Slavery o 1640, three indentured servants ran away and as punishment the two Englishmen were forced to serve an extra year while the African servant, John Punch, was sentenced to serve life as a servant. o 1672, the Royal African Company was created by the British in order to supply their colonies with African servants because it cost less money than bringing in English servants o 1676, Bacon’s Rebellion (the final nail in the coffin) Nathaniel Bacon, a member of the elite sided with servants to attack plantation owners because the owners were not dealing with the local Natives In retaliation the government pulled in more African servants to create a separation between African and English people The government also created laws to further establish separation and hinder interracial socialization Virginia Slave Laws o December 1662: “Whereas some doubts have arisen whether children got by any Englishman upon a Negro woman should be slave or free, be it therefore enacted and declared by this present Grand Assembly, that all children born in this country shall be held bond or free only according to the condition of the mother…” This law gave Englishmen an economic interest and legal ability to “create” their own slaves Strengthened the idea that slavery was a natural condition Gave slave owners the ability to sexually assault enslaved women for personal profit o June 1680: “Whereas the frequent meeting of considerable numbers of negroe slaves under pretence of feasts and burialls is judged of dangerous consequence; for prevention whereof for the future, Bee it enacted by the kings most excellent majestie by and with the consent of the generall assembly, and it is hereby enacted by the authority aforesaid, that from and after the publication of this law, it shall not be lawfull for any negroe or other slave to carry or arme himselfe with any club, staffe, gunn, sword or any other weapon of defence or offence, nor to goe or depart from of his masters ground without a certificate from his master, mistris or overseer, and such permission not to be granted but upon perticuler and necessary occasions; and every negroe or slave soe offending not haveing a certificate as aforesaid shalbe sent to the next constable, who is hereby enjoyned and required to give the said negroe twenty lashes on his bare back well layd on, and soe sent home to his said master, mistris or overseer. And it is further enacted by the authority aforesaid that if any negroe or other slave shall presume or lift up his hand in opposition against any christian, shall for every such offence, upon due proofe made thereof by the oath of the party before a magistrate, have and receive thirty lashed on his bare back well laid on. And it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid that if any negroe or other slave shall absent himself from his masters service and lye hid and lurking in obscure places, comitting injuries to the inhabitants, and shall resist any person or persons that shalby any lawfull authority be imployed to apprehend and take the said negroe, that then in case of such resistance, it shalbe lawfull for such person or persons to kill the said negroe or slave soe lying out and resisting…” Slaves were only allowed to leave if they were given a certificate Slaves were not allowed to socialize or arm themselves Legal to kill slaves who were thought to be rebellious; were legally seen as property and not people o April 1691: “And for prevention of that abominable mixture and spurious issue which hereafter may encrease in this dominion, as well by negroes, mulattoes, and Indians intermarrying with English, or other white women, as by their unlawful accompanying with one another, Be it enacted by the authoritie aforesaid, and it is hereby enacted, that for the time to come, whatsoever English or other white man or woman being free shall intermarry with a negroe, mulatto, or Indian man or woman bond or free shall within three months after such marriage be banished and removed from this dominion forever, and that the justices of each respective countie within this dominion make it their perticular care that this act be put in effectuall execution. And be it further enacted by the authoritie aforesaid, and it is hereby enacted, That if any English woman being free shall have a bastard child by any negro or mulatto, she pay the sume of fifteen pounds sterling, within one moneth after such bastard child be born, to the Church wardens of the parish where she shall be delivered of such child, and in default of such payment she shall be taken into the possession of the said Church wardens and disposed of for five years, and the said fine of fifteen pounds, or whatever the woman shall be disposed of for, shall be paid, one third part to their majesties for and towards the support of the government and the contingent charges thereof, and one other third part to the use of the parish where the offence is committed, and the other third part to the informer, and that such bastard child be bound out as a servant by the said Church wardens untill he or she shall attaine the age of thirty yeares, and in case such English woman that shall have such bastard child be a servant, she shall be sold by the said church wardens, (after her time is expired that she ought by law to serve her master) for five yeares, and the money she shall be sold for divided as is before appointed, and the child to serve as aforesaid.” Law created to maintain racial categories and introduced “white” as a legal racial category This law was not overturned until 1967 Law was designed to aid in self segregation, limit mixed children who were born from English women, and aid in the banishment of mixed children and their parents
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