Popular in Psychology & Culture
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Nesbitt on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 355 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Kristy Dean in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Psychology & Culture in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Health Psychology Attrition- people who join a study in the beginning but do not complete it; “lost in follow ups” o Always report when doing a RTC study Study examples: o Laboratory experiment (*not RTC*): does mood influence food choices? Hypothesis- people will most likely choose healthy foods when they’re happy Independent variable- mood Would have to manipulate a person’s mood (ex: using video clips that express something that is happy or sad) Dependent variable- what the person then eats after their mood is manipulated o RTC: does mood influence food choices? How might our study be different in this case? Measure variables over time Extensive baseline data collection on each participant Intervention has to be more involved o Manipulate mood daily & then measure food intake daily Actual Studies Done o Does mood influence food choice? Answer: YES o Evidence: Grams per buttery popcorn study: 30 people participated in a study for 2 hours, 2 days Within-subject design Each day the participants were to watch a movie (happy or sad movie) They were given popcorn to eat while watching the movie; when the movie was over the researcher determined how much popcorn was eaten by the participants Results: more popcorn was eaten during the sad film compared to during the happy film Other study: Researcher had people think of happy or sad events in their life & were asked to describe them to researcher Researcher then were observed of what they ate based on what mood (happy or sad) the describing of the events put the participant in Correlations o Experiments are not always possible Can’t manipulate particular variables (ex: chronic illness) o Correlation- association between two variables Correlation coefficient- expresses the strength of association -1 perfect negative correlation 0 no correlation +1 perfect positive correlation **can’t establish cause/effect relationship** Perfect correlation does NOT equal causation o Positive correlation- as one variable increases, the other increases OR as one decreases, the other decreases as well o Negative correlation- inverse relationship (one increases and the other decreases) o How do correlations differ from experiments? No manipulation of variables, no random assignment o Greatest disadvantage? Can’t tell which is cause & which is effect o Cross-sectional Looking at people who different on one key characteristic at one specific point in time o From a survey, you discover the following correlation: People with greater social networks are less likely to report a diagnosis of chronic illness. What type of association is this? Negative correlation networks increase, CIs decrease What causal pathways could there be? Having a CI could decrease social network/friendships OR being healthy increases friendships Having a lot of people around could decrease vulnerability to CIs Both could be influenced by a 3 variable o Ex) environment you live in, your age, education level, or personality o How to better determine cause? Direct test with true experiment not feasible, but a laboratory experiment could be conducted to test the question INDIRECTLY How? o Measure CI precursors (HR, BP, ect.) o Longitudinal vs. cross-sectional research Longitudinal follow someone for a LONG period of time (years) Prospective correlational study Follow people forward No manipulation of variables, no random assignment Why better than cross-sectional correlation? o Because researcher is able to look at change over time Retrospective correlational research & case studies have been important to knowledge of some diseases like HIV/AIDS “Patient Zero” o Canadian homosexual flight attendant, was linked to 40 of 60 HIV What is contemporary view of how HIV has spread? o People back in the 1800s ate chimp & it’s believed that HIV spread back then but it wasn’t noticed because it didn’t spread to America o International travel, gay revolution o Retrospective & prospective research in MACS Multicenter Aids Cohort Study (MACS): 30 years; 7,000 participants; resulted in 1,000 publications Cohort- longitudinal study that follows people who share a particular characteristic A few people have resistance to HIV False belief that HIV CAUSES mental problems (it’s only a CORRELATION) o A significant correlation between HIV diagnosis & diagnosis of psychological disorders In South Africa, generally 16.5% of people have psychological disability; the percentage is 43.7% in those diagnosed with HIV (Freeman et al., 2007) Does HIV cause psychological disability? Causal pathways? o People with psych problems tend to engage in risk behaviors (sharing needles to do drugs) increases their possibility to get HIV o Having HIV can lead to developing depression or anxiety o Virus can affect the brain can lead to psych disorders Systems of the Body o Nervous System Network of the body includes ALL neurons Central Nervous System (CNS)- brain & spinal cord, information superhighway Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)- organs, muscles, and glands Division of the Nervous System: Peripheral: o Autonomic- glands/muscles of internal organs (unconscious/involuntary control), has two additional divisions: Parasympathetic- involved in energy conservation; controls organs/glands under normal, nonstressful conditions (i.e. anabolic) Sympathetic- involved in energy consumption; controls organs in stressful situations/emergency (i.e. catabolic) Physical effects? Activation of sympathetic division: pupils dilate, salivation decreases, skin starts to sweat, breathing increases, heart rate increases, digestion is inhibited, and adrenal glands secrete stress hormones Activation of parasympathetic division: pupils contract, salivation increases, skin dries, breathing decreases, heart rate slows, digestion is activated, and adrenal glands decrease the secretion of stress hormones o Skeletal- muscles of the body (voluntary/conscious control) CNS- the brain o Older & newer parts for basic & higher level functioning Older parts sustain basic survival processes (breathing) we are largely unaware of them as they occur o Medulla- heart rate & breathing o Cerebellum- coordination of voluntary movements o Thalamus- main “hub” of brain, takes information & sends it to regions of the brain to be processed Ex) sends visual info to the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe o Hypothalamus- implicated in lots of different activity Stress response Helps medulla Regulates basic drives thirst, hunger, sex drives Rewards nucleus accombens= reward center “Transition center” Ex) anxiousness in cortex “transitioned” to physical effects via hypothalamus o Limbic system- important role in emotion Amygdala- linked to aggression & fear in animals Effects of stimulation vs. lesion? o Stimulation- causes animal to become aggressive, increase in stress hormones o Lesion- no more fear response What about people? Similar effects o Stimulation studies- increase fear & anxiety o In adults: Naturally overactive amygdala associated with? Anxiousness (naturally fearful) & depression, linked to oversensitivity of emotional arousal Damage? Lose sensitivity to emotions, unable to distinguish between certain emotions o Newer part Cerebral cortex Largest part of the brain; involved in higher order processes o Ex) intelligence, personality, memory, thinking Four lobes & each with a primary responsibility o Occipital (vision), temporal (hearing), parietal (processes touch), and frontal (personality, speaking, thinking) Parallel processing- process all info all at once, not in stages Ex) process the movement, color, form and depth of a bird all at once Neurotransmitters- chemicals released by the body that affects how the nervous system functions Released in large quantities when the body experiences a stressor Can be fast or slow; natural or drug induced o Epinephrine & norepinephrine are examples of neurotransmitters Cause a variety of changes in the body 25 million Americans experience disorders of the nervous system o Ex) dopamine & schizophrenia
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