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Introductory Biology Chapter 1 Notes

by: Alexa Wolf

Introductory Biology Chapter 1 Notes BIOL 106N

Marketplace > Old Dominion University > Biology > BIOL 106N > Introductory Biology Chapter 1 Notes
Alexa Wolf
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About this Document

These notes cover the introductory lesson to biology, featuring a "Words to Know" list, along with the key terms highlighted throughout the notes.
Biology for Non-Science Majors
Dr. Tatyana Lobova
Class Notes
Biology, introductory biology, Bio, Science




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Wolf on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 106N at Old Dominion University taught by Dr. Tatyana Lobova in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Biology for Non-Science Majors in Biology at Old Dominion University.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
BIOL 106N Chapter 1 Notes Words to Know: Biology: The scientific study of life Life: A set of characteristics that distinguish living organisms from non­living matter Biosphere: The global ecosystem; the entire portion of Earth inhabited by life; all of life  and where it lives Ecosystem: All the living things in an area, along with the nonliving things they interact  with Prokaryotic Cell: A type of cell without a nucleus or organelles Eukaryotic Cell: A type of cell with a membrane­enclosed nucleus and other membrane­ enclosed organelles Genes: A type of inheritance DNA that carries a specific sequence that gives a person  certain physical traits Natural selection: A process where organisms with certain inherited traits are more likely  to survive and reproduce Science: Learning about the natural world while using the scientific method Discovery Science: Focusing on using observations to describe nature Scientific Method: Set of steps used to investigate a certain observed phenomena Hypothesis­Driven Science: Using the scientific method to answer questions about nature Hypothesis: A tentative explanation for an observed phenomena Controlled Experiment: When a scientist carries out two parallel tests, an experimental  test and a control test. The test differs by one controlled factor. Theory: A widely accepted explanation of a phenomena that is supported by a large  amount of evidence The Properties of Life o 7 properties of life: 1. Order  All living things exhibit complex but order organization 2. Regulation  When outside environments change, organism can adjust their internal  environment 3. Growth and Development  Controlled by information in DNA 4. Energy Processing  Organisms take in energy in order to do work 5. Response to the Environment  All organisms respond to stimulus from the environment 6. Reproduction  Organisms reproduce their own kind 7. Evolution BIOL 106N  Through reproduction, organisms change over time Life at Its Many Levels o Life exists at many levels o At each level, new properties emerge to make the organism more sophisticated o Called emergent properties because they emerge as complexity increases o Living things interact with nonliving things inside of their ecosystems o Both organism and environment are affected by the interaction o Dynamics of an ecosystem depend on two main processes: 1.   Recycling of chemical nutrients  Three modes of nutrition: 1.   Producers o Photosynthetic organisms 2.   Consumers o Animals that eat plants (direct) or other animals (indirect) 3.   Decomposers o Break down dead organisms and waste products to simple  nutrients 2.   Flow of energy  Ecosystems constantly gain and lose energy  Solar energy is used by producers to be converted into chemical energy,  which is passed down to consumers and decomposers  In the conversion, some energy is changed to heat, which is lost o Different types ecosystems make up the biosphere o Humans and machines disrupt the biosphere o Cells are the lowest level where life can occur o Organisms can be single­celled or multi­cellular o 2 basic types of cells: o Prokaryotic  Simpler and smaller than eukaryotic cells  Ex) Bacteria o Eukaryotic  Contain different functional compartments called organelles  Ex) Plants and animals o All cells use DNA to carry their genes o Genome: all the genes an organism has Life in Its Diverse Forms o Estimates of 10 million to over 100 million of known species o Organisms grouped by similarities o Taxonomy: branch of biology that names and groups organisms o Three domains of life: 1.   Bacteria BIOL 106N  Prokaryotic cells 2.   Archaea  Prokaryotic cells 3.   Eukarya  Eukaryotic cells  Plants Produce their own food through photosynthesis  Fungi Mostly decomposers; get food through breaking down dead  organisms and waste products  Animals Obtain food by consuming other organisms  Protists Eukaryotes that do not fit into the other three categories Evolution: Biology’s Unifying Theme o Evolution is the fundamental principle of biology and unifies all life The Darwinian View of Life o Charles Darwin o On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859)  Species today descended from ancestral species “Descent with modification”  Natural selection o Observation 1: Overproduction and competition o Too large of a population with not enough resources leads to competition for the  limited resources o Observation 2: Individual variation o Traits vary within a population; no two individuals are exactly alike o Conclusion o Organisms with the best traits for the environment will survive and have the most  successful offspring, passing their favorable traits on to the next generation o Natural selection leads to adaptation and is the mechanism for evolution o The purposeful breeding of plants and animals by humans  The Process of  Science o Discovery Science o Observing and measuring the structures and processes of the world o Enables biologists to describe life o Hypothesis­Driven Science o Uses the scientific method as a process of inquiry  Starts by making a hypothesis  Make predictions about what might happen BIOL 106N  Test hypothesis and predictions with a controlled experiment o Scientific theories are supported by a wide variety of evidence o Science has two main points that distinguish it from other types of inquiry: 1.   Dependence of verifiable observation and measurements 2.   Hypotheses must be testable by experiments o Science and technology work hand in hand to discover new ideas


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