Vertebrate Biology- Week 1
Vertebrate Biology- Week 1 BZ 220
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Busick on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BZ 220 at Colorado State University taught by Angeloni, Lisa Maria in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Evolution in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Week 1 Notes Titanosaur was the largest animal to ever live on Earth Was previously a different animal identified by a vertebrae Is possible this animal had never existed Blue whale is largest existing animal ▯ Atmospheric CO2 higher in past Atmospheric temp=high levels of CO2-> greenhouse effect Humans have sped up rate of climate change- effect organisms ▯ Major extinction event is greater than 50% of species die After every major extinction- diversity increases and opens the door for new organisms to establish themselves Bird were first to rise after dinosaurs then mammals ▯ Vertebrates are a very small part of the animal kingdom (65-70 thousand) Fish largest aquatic group Reptiles largest when you include birds (avians largest if separated) ▯ Changes in complication of the overall body plan of vertebrates= evolution Never present evolution as a reptile wanting to be a mammal All organisms evolved at independent times o Mutations to allow organisms to gain an advantage (reproduce more) In order to be successful-> must be met by environmental conditions ▯ Evolution is not a direct process – it is random Shared derived characteristics-> in all descendents, not in previous ancestors 4 clusters of hox genes is the furthest of duplications every organism can be classified as the organism that preceded it 16 times the amount of energy through oxygen o metabolism more efficient *based off oxygen ▯ Pangaea- giant dessert that led to a major extinction Continents start to break apart- huge increases in diversity Understand continents along with the changes in diversity ▯ ▯ 530 million years ago-Cambrian Period nothing lives on land eyes were the first predatory evolution landmark Fish were first vertebrate ▯ 478 million years ago sponges and sea urchins recognizable today giant scorpion next big scale predator primitive fish have first brain with memory arthropods were first to enter land ▯ 360 million years ago Devonian period transition to land ▯ Vertebrates Vertebrae is defining characteristic Gnathostomata- jawed animals o Increases ability to become predators o Paired appendages Osteichthyes- bony fish (another huge step forward) o Start to have bone that makes up internal skeleton(cartilage was previous internal makeup) o Strength of the internal skeleton -> counteract gravity & hold themselves up against gravity when transition to land Transition to land o Amphibians – dual lifestyle (return to water to lay eggs) o Evolution of amniotic egg (huge) Frees vertebrates from having to return to water to lay eggs Opens door for colonization of land away from water Left to right = increases in complication o Metabolism, internal structure, complication of body o Evolve and adapt among INDEPENDENT lines Shared ancestral – found in descendent and ancestor o Has to be in immediate ancestor Shared derived – characteristic that defines the group o Vertebrae in vertebrates but no in hagfishes Hox genes – lay out body plan for an animals o Create blue print for the building of the body o Duplication of hox genes – craniates (distinct head) o 4 clusters of hox genes – gnathostomes (jaw) final cluster of hox genes traits o homologous- same in ancestor and descendent (shared ancestral characteristic) o analogous- same functional purpose but not a common ancestor that had the trait (wings in butterfly vs wings in birds) function is the same but came about differently example of convergent evolution o convergent evolution – animals that are distantly related but share common traits o parallel – recent separation between organisms (similar traits within a group) kangaroo limbs and kangaroo jumping rats similar trait amongst closely related organisms *both convergent and parallel do not have a common ancestor levels of classification o Domain (Eukarya) o Kingdom (Animalia) o Phylum (chordata) o Class (Mammalia) o Order (carnivore) o Family (Felidae) o Genus (panther) o Species (Panthera pardus) Reproductive isolation Genus and species name always together, should be italicized Monophyletic – ancestor and all its descendants – true clade Paraphyletic – ancestor and some descendants Polyphyletic – descendants and not common ancestor ▯ ▯
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