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Chapter 1 Notes

by: Rebecca Cue

Chapter 1 Notes CLP4143

Rebecca Cue
GPA 3.6
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Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Natalie Sachs-Ericsson

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These are the comprehensive notes from 1/7/16, 1/12/16, and 1/14/16 when we covered Chapter One. The black text are the notes based off of the power points and the notes posted on blackboard, and t...
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Natalie Sachs-Ericsson
Class Notes
Abnormal psychology, Psychology




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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Cue on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLP4143 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Natalie Sachs-Ericsson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
Chapter One Notes 1716 11216 11416 The black type is notes based off the power points outline that Dr SachsEricsson gave us and the purple is anything she said extra in class that was on neither Chapter 1 Introduction and Historical Introduction to the Study of Mental Disorders History of Psychopathology The Evolution of Contemporary Thought The Mental Health Professions 99 59 Psychopathology is the study of nature development and treatment of psychological disorders Challenges to the study of psychopathology 1 Maintain objectivity 2 Avoid preconceived notions 3 Reduce stigma Reducing stigma is a constant challenge Figure 11 Four Characteristics of Stigma The Four Characteristics of Stigma Distinguishing label iS applied Label refers to undesirable attributes 1 Peope with the label are seen as different I I People with the label are discriminated against Stigma Figure 11 2012 John Wiley amp Sons Inc All rights reserved Defining Mental Disorder Personal Distress Emotional pain and suffering There is a sense of helplessness and hopelessness when it comes to depression DISABILITY impairment in a key area for example work or relationships 0 Chronic substance abuse can result in job loss Violation of Social Norms 0 Makes others uncomfortable or causes problems Example people with mental disorders may talk to themselves etc They do things that are outside of normal They tend to also lack empathy o Antisocial behavior of the psychopath Dysfunction Wakefield s Harmful Dysfunction failure of internal mechanisms in the mind to function properly 0 Dysfunction is ultimately anchored in evolutionary biology and refers to failure of an internal mechanism to perform one of its naturally selected function Figure 12 Key Characteristics in the De nition of Mental Disorder Defining Mental Disorder Violation of Social Personal Distress Norms Mental Disorder Disability Dysfunction Figure 12 2012 John Wiley amp Sons Inc All rights reserved History of Psychopathology 0 Early Demonology I Possession by evil beings or spirits I Example Exorcism Early Biological Explanations o Hippocrates 5th century BC I Mental disturbances have natural not supernatural causes problems with the brain I Three categories of mental disorders mania melancholia amp phrenitis brain fever I Normal brain functioning depended on balance of four humors blood black bile yellow bile amp phlegm Dark Ages 0 Dark Ages 2nd century AD I Monks cared and prayed for mentally ill 0 Witches 13th century AD o Torture sometimes led to bizarre delusional sounding confessions e g concourse with demons 0 Initially historians concluded many of the accused were mentally ill 0 Further research found little support for this conclusion Lunacy Trials O O O 0 Trials held to determine sanity Began in 13th century England Municipal authorities assumed responsibility for care of mentally ill Lunacy attributes insanity to misalignment of moon luna and stars Asylums O O O O Asylums 15th century AD Establishments for the con nement and care of mentally ill Priory of St Mary of Bethlehem founded in 1243 I One of the rst mental institutions I The wealthy paid to gape at the insane I Origin of the term bedlam wild uproar or confusion Treatment nonexistent or harmful at asylums I Benjamin Rush recommended drawing copious amounts of blood to relieve brain pressure Pinel s Reforms and Moral Treatment O Philippe Pinel 17451826 I Pioneered humanitarian treatment at LaBicetre Moral Treatment 0 0 Small privately funded humanitarian mental hospitals Friends Asylum 1817 I Patients engaged in purposeful calming activities eg gardening I Talked with attendants Dorothea Dix 18021887 O O O O Crusader for prisoners and mentally ill Urged improvement of institutions Worked to establish 32 new public hospitals I Unfortunately small staffs at these new public hospitals could not provide necessary individual attention Hospitals administered by physicians who were more interested in biological rather than psychological aspects of mental illness The Evolution of Contemporary Thought Ongoing debate of biology vs environment Environment can interact with genetics 0 Biological Approaches 0 General paresis and Syphilis General paresis is the OUTCOME of syphilis Syphilis is a transmitted disease which leads to psychological disorders I Degenerative disorder with psychological symptoms delusions of grandeur and physical symptoms progressive paralysis I By mid1800 s it was known that general paresis and syphilis occurred together in some patients I In 1905 biological cause of syphilis found 0 Since general paresis had biological cause other mental illness might also Psychiatric disorders were beginning to be believed that they might be psychological 0 Biological causes of psychopathology gained credibility The Evolution of Contemporary Thought 0 Genetics 0 Galton s 18221911 work lead to notion that mental illness can be inherited o Galton s Law states on average our heritage is contributed by 12 our parents 1 our grandparents 18 our great grandparents 116 our greatgreat grandparents etc 0 Nature genetics and nurture environment 0 Eugenics o What is Eugenics Promotion of enforced sterilization to eliminate undesirable characteristics from the population 0 Many state laws required mentally ill to be sterilized Early Biological Treatments History of psychiatry has many unfortunate attempts of treatment Example of this is InsulinComa Therapy and Electroconvulsive Therapy 0 Insulincoma therapy 0 Sakel 1930 s 0 Patients were given an overdose of insulin which caused them to become severely sick and could possibly even lead to death 0 Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT o Induce epileptic seizures with electric shock I Shock was given to the patient s head which would induce a seizure o Prefrontal lobotomy A Doctor would go into the patient s brain and take out parts of the brain This made the patients act like vegetables They lost a lot of cognitive ability There was no good as a result just great harm o Often used to control violent behaviors led to listlessness apathy and loss of cognitive abilities o ECT is still used now for severe depression There is a severe side effect of memory loss The Evolution of Contemporary Thought 0 Psychological Approaches o Mesmer 17341815 I Treated patients with hysteria using animal magnetism I Early practitioner of hypnosis o Charcot 18251893 I Was Mesmer s student I His support legitimizes hypnosis as treatment for hysteria I Showed some symptoms were psychological o Breuer 18421925 I Worked with Freud I Used hypnosis to facilitate catharsis in Anna O I Anna O was an individual who had lots of troubling memories from her ch dhood o Cathartic Method I Was derived from talking through Anna O s tragic memories to encourage patients to talk through their difficult pasts to overcome them I Release of emotional tension triggered by reliving and talking about event I Some aspects of this are still used today in the treatment of PTSD o Freud I Breuer and Freud 18561939 jointly publish Studies in Hysteria in 1895 which serves as the basis for Freud s theory Freudian or Psychoanalytic theory 0 Human behavior determined by unconscious forces 0 Psychopathology results from con icts among these unconscious forces Freud s Structures of the Mind 0 Id 0 Your wild child Unconscious Pleasure principle What it is guided by Immediate grati cation Libido Energy of ID Comprised all of sexual energy 0 Ego 0 Your practical grown up self Primarily conscious But still partially unconscious Reality principle I Attempt to satisfy lD s demands Within reality s constraints 0 Superego The conscience Develops as we incorporate parental and society values I Develops as a child for example we learn about the golden rule Defense Mechanisms anxiety Id Ego amp Superego continually in con ict Con ict generates anxiety o Ego generates strategies to protect itself from anxiety Defense mechanisms Psychological maneuvers used to manage stress amp anxiety Table 12 Selected Defense Mechanisms KNOW THESE FOR EXAM Table 12 Selected Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanism Definition Example Repression Denial Projection Displacement Reaction formation Regression Rationalization Sublimation Keeping unacceptable impulses or wishes from conscious awareness Not accepting a painful reality into conscious awareness Attributing to someone else one s own unacceptable thoughts or feelings Redirecting emotional responses from their real target to someone else Converting an unacceptable feeling into its opposite Retreating to the behavioral patterns of an earlier stage of development Offering acceptable reasons for an unacceptable action or attitude Converting unacceptable aggressive or sexual impulses into socially valued behaviors A professor starting a lecture she dreaded giving says In conclusion A victim of childhood abuse does not acknowledge it as an adult A man who hates members of a racial group believes that it is they who dislike him A child gets mad at her brother but instead acts angrily toward her friend A person with sexual feelings toward children leads a campaign against child sexual abuse An adolescent dealing with unacceptable feelings of social inadequacy attempts to mask those feelings by seeking oral gratification A parent berates a child out of impatience then indicates that she did so to build character Someone who has aggressive feelings toward his father becomes a surgeon Table 12 2012 John Wiley 8 Sons Inc All rights reserved 0 Psychoanalytic Therapy I Goals of Psychoanalytic Therapy or Psychoanalysis How they affect your current relationships relationships Understand earlychildhood experiences particularly key parental Understand patterns in current relationships 0 Psychoanalytic Techniques the three major techniques of psychoanalysis I Free Association Freud just had patients talk and talk and talk eventually getting to What bothered them I Analysis of Transference Transference is a phenomenon characterized by unconscious redirection of feelings from one person to another patient to therapist I Interpretation When you put together as a therapist the behavior as a patient in a way that they can understand 9the liberation from the con ict is achieved through bringing this material into the conscious mind Table 13 Maj or Techniques of Psychoanalysis Table 13 Major Techniques of Psychoanalysis Technique Description Free association The patient tries to say whatever comes to mind without censoring anything Interpretation The analyst points out to the patient the meaning of certain of the patient s behaviors Analysis of transference The patient responds to the analyst in ways that the patient has previously responded to other important figures in his or her life and the analyst helps the patient understand and interpret these responses Table 13 2012 John Wiley amp Sons Inc All rights reserved NeoFreudians Jung 18751961 Analytical psychology Collective unconscious Archetypes Catalogued personality characteristics Extraversion vs Introversion Adler 18701937 Individual psychology Ful llment derived from working for the social good Continuing In uences of Freud and His Followers Childhood experiences help shape adult personality There are unconscious in uences on behavior We do know that there are things we don t know yet that in uence our thoughts The Evolution of Contemporary Thought Rise of Behaviorism John Watson 18781958 Known as the Father of Behaviorism Behaviorism Focus on observable behavior Emphasis on learning rather than thinking or innate tendencies Three types of learning Classical Conditioning 0 Discovered by Pavlov 18491936 0 Unconditioned Stimulus UCS I Meat powder automatically elicits salivation o Unconditioned Response UR I Salivation automatic response to meat powder 0 Neutral Stimulus MS I Initial ringing of bell does not automatically elicit salivation o Conditioned Stimulus CS I After pairing the NS and the UCS the NS becomes a CS bell now automatically elicits salivation o Conditioned Response CR I Salivation automatic response to bell o Extinction I CS bell not followed by UCS meat powder causes gradual disappearance of CR salivation Operant Conditioning 0 E Thorndike 18741949 0 Learning through consequences 0 Law of Effect I Behavior that is followed by satisfying consequences will be repeated behavior that is followed by unpleasant consequences will be discouraged o BF Skinner 19041990 0 Principle of Reinforcement Being an act of learning 0 Positive reinforcement I Behaviors followed by pleasant stimuli are strengthened 0 Negative reinforcement I Behaviors that terminate a negative stimulus are strengthened Modeling 0 Learning by watching and imitating others behaviors 9 Aggressive behaviors are learned by watching others 0 Can occur without reinforcement I Some children are in uenced easier than others Some examples of how they are in uenced include how their parents act observations from video games etc o Bandura amp Menlove 1968 I Modeling reduced children s fear of dogs I Suggested that violence on TV increased aggression in children Behavior Therapy I Used to treat phobiasanxiety I Behavior Therapy or Behavior Modification Systematic Desensitization I Used to treat phobias and anxiety I Combines deep muscle relaxation and gradual exposure to the feared condition or object I Starts with minimal anxiety producing condition and gradually progresses to most feared Intermittent Reinforcement I Rewarding a behavior only occasionally more effective than continuous schedules of reinforcement I Example giving a child who is throwing a tantrum what they want they will assume that they can then kick and scream and basically get whatever they want Importance of Cognitions Limitations of Behavior Therapy I How we think or appraise a situation in uences our feelings and behaviors Cognitive Therapy Emphasize how people think about themselves and their experiences can be a major determinant of psychopathology Focus on understanding maladaptive thoughts I Change cognitions to change feelings and behaviors Aaron Beck is known as the father of psychopathology He is still alive today almost 100 Ellis 19132007 REBT RationalEmotive Behavior Therapy Mental Health Professions Psychologists I Clinical or Counseling 0 Ph D or Psy D Psychiatrists o MD s can prescribe psychotropic medications Psychiatric Nurses and Psychiatric Nurses Practitioners 0 Nurse Practitioners can prescribe psychotropic medications Social Workers 0 MSW 0 Not trained in psychological assessment I Master s Level Therapists amp Counselors 0 MFT s Marriage and Family Therapists


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