PHILOS1500: Introduction to Logic, Week One Notes
PHILOS1500: Introduction to Logic, Week One Notes PHILOS 1100
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlin Acton on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHILOS 1100 at Ohio State University taught by Jerilyn Tinio in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Philosophy 1500: Introduction to Logic Notes from Week One (1/13, 1/15) Lectures (1/13) In this class, we are focusing on logic, both formal and informal. o Informal logic focuses on natural language which can be found in novels, articles, and any other language of similar nature in written form. o Formal logic focuses on language which is specifically written for the purpose of analyzing arguments. An example of formal logic: All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. __________________ Socrates is mortal. All dogs are mammals. Fido is a dog. __________________ Fido is a mammal. We will be looking at the relationships between statements: “What is the form of this argument?” BACKGROUND TERMINOLOGY A statement is simply a declarative sentence that is either true or false. Sentences that declare things are statements. o For example: “The cat is on the mat.” “Purple is a nice color.” o These sentences are trying to establish a point, whether or not it is intentional or unintentional. The truth value of a sentence is its truth or falsity. This is a property of statements, so an interrogative sentence (question) or a command cannot be true or false. Therefore, they cannot have truth values. o This illustrates the fact that all statements are sentences but not all sentences are statements. o In the case that we cannot determine the truth value of a statement, its truth value remains unknown. We cannot declare that it is one or the other (true or false). A proposition is the information that a sentence expresses, or in other words, the meaning that the sentence carries. o For example, take these sentences: o “I am on the right side of Jerry.” and “Jerry is on the left side of me.” o These sentences mean the same thing, but they contain different words. They are different sentences with the same proposition. o Furthermore, a statement is true or false based on whether or not the proposition expressed is satisfied. An argument (one of the most important terms and the basis for this class) is a group of statements including a premise/premises and a conclusion/conclusions. A premise is a statement meant to provide support for a conclusion. A conclusion is a statement that is “claimed to follow from the premises of an argument.” Furthermore, obviously, a conclusion is a statement that concludes something based on supporting statements or premises. The term inference refers to the reasoning process expressed by an argument. Inference, more clearly, is the move someone makes from the premises to the conclusion. o For example: If I look at the clock and see that it is 1 PM, and I know that I have a class at 1:30 PM, I can conclude that I should leave my dorm to get to my class on time. The move I made from realizing what time it was to making the decision to leave for class is called inference. THE THREE RULES OF ARGUMENTS 1. There must be at least one premise. 2. There must be at least one conclusion. 3. There must be an inferential claim . The term inferential claim refers to a passage that expresses a reasoning process, or inference. However, we will not be focusing too much on the term itself in this class. METHODS FOR IDENTIFYING ARGUMENTS The first method is to look for premise or conclusion indicators. A premise indicator suggests a premise; these are words such as since, given that, assuming that, etc. A conclusion indicator suggests a conclusion; these are words such as therefore, in that case, it proves that, etc. o (There are more of these in the book and in the lecture notes on Carmen.) o CAUTION: Sometimes humans mess up. Because of that, they may use words like those listed incorrectly. Be careful to assume that a statement is a premise or a conclusion JUST BECAUSE they contain what seems like an indicator. If there are no indicators obviously included in the statements, the second method is to really look at each sentence carefully and try to determine whether or not an argument is being made. EXPLANATIONS Explanations use words like because, it follows that, etc. which are thought to be premise and conclusion indicators. However, that does not mean that they are arguments. Explanations only serve to explain why something happened, how something is, etc. Hence the word explanation. Although it is true that an explanation is not an argument in itself, an explanation can be used as part of an argument, either as a premise or a conclusion. WARNINGS ARE NOT ARGUMENTS.
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