Week1Notes.pdf Kin 247
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by AnthonyA on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Kin 247 at University of Massachusetts taught by Sarah Witkowski in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Physical Activity/Health and Disease in Kinesiology at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Week 1 Notes 1.20.16 • Cardiovascular Disease is the #1 cause of death in the U.S. • Some indicators of ideal cardiovascular health? o On Slides § Smoking § BMI § Physical Activity § Healthy Diet Score § Total Cholesterol § Normal Blood Pressure § Fasting Plasma Glucose o Said in Class § Resting Heart Rate § Low Body Fat/Healthy Composition § Capillaries § Stroke Volume § Blood Lipid Profile • Physical Activity – body movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level o Behavior o Includes everything except being completely sedentary and still o Categorized according to Mode, Intensity, and Purpose o Examples: § Walking § Household tasks § Lifting boxes at work • Exercise o Behavior o Planned o Structured o Repetitive o Type of Physical Activity 1.22.16 Disease and Health • Disease – abnormal, reduced, or lost structure or function of cells, organs, or systems of the body o Can be defined according to cause or symptom • Health – opposite or absence of disease; state of mental, physical, and social well-‐being o Not only the absence of disease or illness Non-‐Communicable Diseases (NCD) • Diseases not transmitted by contact with people • Post-‐WWII shift in public health to focus on NCD’s • 56 million deaths in 2012 • 68% due to NCD’s o World Health Org (WHO) stats Chronic Disease 1. Develops over time 2. Treatments may resolve signs and symptoms 3. Pathophysiology may nit go away 4. Susceptibility to pathophysiology is always present • 4 main NCD’s 1. Cardiovascular 2. Cancer 3. Pulmonary Disease 4. Diabetes • 4 behaviors underlie each of these diseases 1. Smoking 2. Nutrition 3. Physical Inactivity 4. Excessive alcohol • NCD’s lead to 33% of premature deaths worldwide o 70% (7 out of 10 people) deaths per year in U.S. from NCD’s • Mortality o Deaths o A mortality rate is Deaths divided by Total Population of Interest • Morbidity – State of being diseased or unhealthy o Rate if Incidents of Ill Health divided by Total Population of Interest o Can have multiple co-‐morbidities § Cardiovascular disease and obesity How to assess disease? • CDC’s mission to figure out how to protect a community’s health using expertise, info, and tools • Physical activity to anthrax CDC • Wide variety of surveillance research • Track levels of disease over time • Relevant to physical activity o Track U.S. population levels of disease, mortality, and risk factors o Monitors behaviors of people in USA (including physical activity) Epidemiology • Study of patterns, relationships, risk factors, and effects of health and disease conditions defined on populations • Risk: associated with an increased risk of disease o i.e. Physical Activity and risk for disease Risk Factor • Term coined when risk factors were being discovered for heart disease o Framingham Heart Study • Example o Osteoporosis o Diabetes o Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Disease Progression All Risk >1 >1 Risk 1 Major >2 Major Disease Factors Factor Not Factor Risk Risk Optimal Optimal Elevated Factor Factors (Disease prevention important à Treatment)
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