LIN3041 -- Intro to Linguistics -- Week 3 Notes
LIN3041 -- Intro to Linguistics -- Week 3 Notes LIN3041
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Isgar on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIN3041 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Gretchen Sunderman in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Linguistics in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Lecture Notes – Week 3 – 1/19&1/21 Chapter 5: Syntax -- The Analysis of Sentence Structure (cont'd) **notes from end of Ch. 5 #1-5 homework "Specs come off of XP, comps come off of X'" Tree-wise -- all words have 3 levels but they don't necessarily need to be parallel or lined up Adverbs vs. Auxiliaries -- you have to know that the modals are the ones that would go with Aux, think of them as helping verbs, something that still goes with the verb but does not modify it like an adverb does Constituents The existence of syntactic units, or constituents, can be verified using special tests Tests for phrase structure Substitution test -- can you substitute something for the phrase? VP = do so, NP = they, PP = there The children will stop at the corner. Movement test -- can you move the phrase somewhere else in the sentence? They stopped at the corner. Coordination test -- can it be joined to another group of words by a conjugation? The children stopped at the corner and looked both ways. Complement options -- or what a word needs… o Verbs o Other categories o Complement Clauses Verbs: Complement Sample Example Option Head None Win They won. NP Take I took [the pills]. AP Feel She felt [very sad]. PPto Go They went [to the store]. NP NP Lend I lent [a pencil] [to her]. NP PP to Take She took [the book] [to him]. NP PP for Bake We baked [a cake] [for mom]. NP PP loc Build He built [a gazebo] [in the yard]. PPtoP about Talk I talked [to dad] [about it]. NP PP for with Open We opened [the door] [for Andy] [with a crowbar] Nouns: Complement Sample Example Option Head None Car The car PPof Memory Memory [of a friend] PPofP to Presentation The presentation [of a medal] [to the Lecture Notes – Week 3 – 1/19&1/21 winner] PPwithP about Argument An argument [with Amy] [about politics] Adjectives: Complement Sample Example Option Head None Tall Very tall PP about Curious Curious [about Germany] PPto Obvious Obvious [to them] PPof Full A chamber full [of secrets] Prepositions: Complement Sample Example Option Head None Away They got away. NP In In [the basement] PP Down Down [in the South] Complement Options What information is contained in the lexicon for each entry? o Category o Phonological representation o Meaning o Complement Subcategorization -- information about a word's completely options Determines the type of syntactic structure in which the verb can appear Complement Clauses The psychic knows that the candidate will succeed. The psychic knows that the candidate will succeed. [Complement clause] The psychic knows that the candidate will succeed. [Matrix clause] Complementizers That Whether If Structure of a CP CP --> C' --> C IP Figure 5.11 Another important formula CPs can occur as complements of… Verbs, Nouns, Adjectives, Preposition -- insight for homework problems -- Lecture Notes – Week 3 – 1/19&1/21 Merge: Will the girl leave? <-- SS Surface Structure --> The girl will leave. <-- DS Deep Structure: all sentences start in your mind as the deep structure In your mind, you form "the girl will leave" and it undergoes transformations to become the question you want Assume there is always a CP shell T = trace; shows your transformations Q = +questions; feature of CP o An abstract concept saying that you have the ability to form a question from this sentence Example: Will the girl leave? Move options: 1) Move I to C 2) Move NP to Spec of CP Example: Which languages could Aristotle speak? Deep Structure: Aristotle could speak which languages. Lecture Notes – Week 3 – 1/19&1/21 st (Thursday, January 21 ) **In reference to the homework problems #10,11 For do insertion: for example "Do those birds sing?" The deep structure would be "Those birds sing" without the do, which will get inserted later The "do insertion" never takes place in the deep structure
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