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PERS: Comapartive Culture Chapter 1

by: Diamond Washington

PERS: Comapartive Culture Chapter 1 PERS 2001

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Behavioral Sciences > PERS 2001 > PERS Comapartive Culture Chapter 1
Diamond Washington
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About this Document

This is more of a study outline for chapter 1 that was distributed to the class.
Comparative Culture
Dr. Steve Jacobson
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Diamond Washington on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PERS 2001 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Steve Jacobson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Comparative Culture in Behavioral Sciences at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
Confucianism:  The Way of the Sages.   (Kung Fu Tzu  or Latinized  “Confucius”)  Analects  (551­479 BCE) 1. Emphasis on good government and welfare of common people, not metaphysics. 2   The Decree of Heaven:  Moral Principles that Govern the Behavior (good governance) of the Emperor in the interests of the common  people,  and moral principles for the common people as well.,  (Authored by Heaven)   (Moral Principle:  Normative versus  Descriptive) 3   Destiny:  Areas of Life that are outside Human Control:   Destiny  is to be accepted;  the DH’s are the proper objects of human  concern…..  (Examples:  family, country, genetics, natural talents) 4   The Way (the Tao):   Ancient Sages whose actions mirrored the  Decrees of Heaven, and served as a model for the rest of us  commoners.  (DH, Ancient Sages, Words of the Sages)  Ideal  Moral Person = Gentleman. HUMAN NATURE: 5. All humans are potentially sages;  in reality most if not all are far  removed from the Way of the Sages.     6. What keeps humans from being sages?   Humans have free will.      7. Later, figures filled in details about Human nature. Mencius, Hsun­ tzu  (A debate over whether human nature is basically good or  bad.) DIAGNOSIS:    8.  Dismal appraisal of the human condition:  22:  Five Causes.    Selfish motives—esp. having to do with wealth and power and  personal gain. [We ought to do what is right, simply because its right, not  because of the ends we hope          to achieve.   (“doing for  nothing”:  indifference to what one can’t control (destiny);  to social recognition;  (avoid investing one’s peace of mind in  matters one can’t control.]     Erosion of Trust:  Reliance on the Word of Others is eroded.   [Many people are not  true to their word, ie, trustworthy] Ignorance of the Way of the Sages.  A scholarly tradition with an  emphasis on studying the classics.       Lack of Benevolence (Kindness):  The fundamental Confucian  Virtue.  (It is within reach of all humans) PRESCRIPTION:   Basic thesis: Acting according to the Way of Heaven:  independent of social  reward or recognition­­which are a matter of Destiny. The Way of Heaven includes:  Being a good family member,   The  transformation of society begins with the family.  The rules  governing members of a family should be extended to others  outside the family.      The Ancient Sages:  A Spontaneous expression of a perfected internal  state­­of the Way of Heaven:  they are models for all.  How so? The Gentleman:  People who have internalized and express the Way of  the  Sages Confucian Practitioners:  Direct Observation and Textual Study are the  means to connect with the Decrees of Heaven….. How is the way of the Sages (Decrees of Heaven) communicated to  members of society: Ancient Sages  who somehow or other recognize a set of principles as the “Decrees of Heaven”. A scholarly tradition.  Some members of an elite class of scholars  have exposure to the Decrees of Heaven thru the Classics.               Common people have exposure thru exemplary people;   Confucius:  If all would follow this way, people would achieve  perfection, and society would be transformed, and benevolence  would rule.  “Paradigmatic Tradition” Questions and Critical Issues:    A. To what extent is the dismal condition due to destiny, rather than  misuse of free will, or our failure to follow the way of the sages? B. Is the Way of the Sages meant as a model for Chinese society  alone, or a model for all human societies? C. What, if anything, does the Confucian traditions have to say about  specific issues—eg. the morality of war, euthanasia, same­sex  marriage, abortion,  …..? D.How do we know which moral principles are involved in The  Decree of Heaven.?


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