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BSC 108-Dr. Yates, Chapter One and Two Notes

by: Hannah Pierce

BSC 108-Dr. Yates, Chapter One and Two Notes BSC 108

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 108 > BSC 108 Dr Yates Chapter One and Two Notes
Hannah Pierce
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These are the notes I have from what we have covered in Dr. Yates class, Intro to Biology, thus far.
Intro to Biology
Dr. Yates
Class Notes
Biology, Science
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Pierce on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Yates in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
January 15, 2016 004 BSC 108: What is life?  Characteristics of living (class examples): energy, cellular respiration, reproduction  Characteristics of non-living things (class examples): can’t evolve, can’t reproduce, can’t grow and develop -The Scope of Life  Biology is the study of life. -7 Characteristics of living things: 1.They have order. 2.They regulate themselves through homeostasis: maintaining a steady state (on test). 3.They grow and develop. 4.They process energy. 5.They respond to their environment. 6.They reproduce. 7. They evolve. Themes: Theme 1: The scope of life and Emergent Properties Theme 2: organisms exchange matter and energy within ecosystems. Theme 3: Cells are an organisms’ basic unit.  Two types of cells (know for test): Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic. Theme 4: The Continuity of Life is based on the information in DNA. Theme 5: Diversity is the hallmark of life and the diverse forms of life fit their function.  There are 3 main groups of life called domains. 1. Eukarya : eukaryote: Organisms with a true nucleus. 2. Bacteria 3. Archae Theme 6: Evolution-Heritable changes in populations over generations. Biology’s core theme. SCIENCE: The word science is derived from a Latin verb meaning “to know”. It is both a way of knowing and a body of knowledge. -Scientists use two main forms of inquiry. 1. Discovery science-describes natural structures and processes. 2. Hypothesis based science: a. Hypothesis: An idea that can be tested. It has to be written as an “if, then” statement. b. Failure to falsify a hypothesis does not prove it. c. Often hypotheses must be modified. *Steps of Scientific Method: 1. Observe and generalize ;2.) Formulate a hypothesis; 3.) Make a testable prediction ; 4.) Experiment or observe ; 5.)Modify hypothesis as necessary and repeat steps 3 and 4. 2 3 January 20, 2016 Biology: Chapter 2- Essential Chemistry for Biology  Elements and Atoms: o Element: a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions  There are 92 naturally occurring elements (103 in total)-> Some man-made o Atom: smallest unit of an element that has all of its properties.  Elements in Organisms: o Most common elements in organisms are as follows: hydrogen (H)-9.5%; Carbon ( C )-18.5%; Oxygen (O)-65.0%; and Nitrogen (N)-3.3%. o Some more common elements in organisms include Phosphorus (P), and Sulfur (S) o Other elements include Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), and Chlorine (Cl)  Trace Elements o Trace elements are essential for life. o Iodine and Fluoride are two common trace elements.  An iodine deficiency can cause a goiter.  Fluoride is important to keep away tooth decay and cavities.  Fluoride has been added to water sources, to help with dental hygiene. o However, some elements are harmful to life, such as cadmium and lead.  Carcinogen- A cancer causing agent  Subatomic Particles o Protons: positively charged  Atomic mass=1 Dalton o Neutron: No (or neutral) charge  Atomic mass=1 Dalton o Electron: Negative charge  Atomic mass=negligible  Characteristics of Atoms o Protons and Neutrons in nucleus. o Electrons orbit; may occupy different energy levels. o The number of protons (the atomic number), determines which element it is. o Atomic mass number: Number of protons and neutrons January 20, 2016 o Elements differ in the number of subatomic particles in their atom. o Isotopes of an element contain different number of neutrons Uses of Isotopes o Radioactive isotopes: the nucleus decay gives off particles and energy


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